Assessment of Ground water Quality of Balola Area in South Krodofan State

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Khadigha Abdullah Elhessen Alhassan
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University of Khartoum
Background: Ground water is generally considered to be a safe source of drinking water than surface water, but can also be contaminated. Water is said to be polluted either due to the presence of harmful chemicals, physical or bacterial contamination. All water pollutants are hazardous to humans health e.g. ; high hardness (salt water) causes cardiovascular, PH, turbidity, iron cause change of taste, color and odor, Lack of iodine increase thyroid gland inflammation , fluoride increase of dental caries, diarrhea, typhoid and hepatitis diseases transmitted by sewage in drinking. Design: This is an analytical study Setting:- This study was conducted at South Krodofan state - At Abugebaha locality in Balola area during the period from July 2010 to April 2011 Objectives: To assess the ground water quality in terms of chemical and physical in addition to bacteriological quality of Balola Area at Abugebiha locality in South Krodofan State. Materials and methods: To assess the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of ground water. 18 samples of water were collected and tested.Chemical parameters were analyzed using palintest(R) Photometer and Microseisms. Turbidity analyzed by using microprocessor (turbidity meter). bacteriological analysis using multiple tube method technique. Odour, taste, colour were assessed by using senses. Samples were collected according to the recommended procedures i .e bacteriological in sterilized bottles after tap Flaming as to the chemical sample were collected in clean plastic bottles after rinsing. Results: The analysis of ground water samples revealed the following: - Bacteriologic ally 61.1% of samples were contaminated. - Chemically the analysis revealed that: 72.2% , 33.3% , 33.3% , 16.7% ,15.6% , 11.6% of samples tested exceeded the recommended standards values, with regard to: Fluoride, ammonia, chloride, turbidity iron, PH, chlorides respectively where as other parameters complied with standards. Conclusion : 1-investigation of ground water is very important to heath improvement. It eliminates the hazard due to water pollution and it protects water sources. 2-Water sources are chemically contaminated and contain high level of chemical substances such as fluoride , ammonia,hardness,Iron33.3% ,PH 16.7,turbidity11.1% all this parameters in the range of WHO guide line and SSMO standards 3- The bacteriological analysis of water samples revealed that the positive samples about 61.1%. 4-there is no treatment system for ground water 5-The reasons of the samples contamination could be problems with sitting of wells; - the holding of water as well as the overall hygiene. -The watering for animals beside the drinking wells this leads to laechate of the pollutions in to the wells. 6. Properties Implications Implications of water - Turbidity : the appearance for effective terminal disinfection. - Ammonia : odor and taste. - Chloride : taste – corrosion. Hardness : scum formation, possible corrosion, urolithiasis , cardiovascular risk . Iron : staining of laundry and sanitary ware. Manganese : staining of laundry and sanitary ware. PH : taste, soapy feel, preferably <8.0 for effective Disinfection with chlorine. Sulfate : taste, corrosion. Total dissolved solid: taste. Fluoride : skeletal damage (Fluorosis) Dental caries, mottling of teeth , toxic Nitrate and nitrite: methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) The reasons for external contamination of wells are most likely:- a. Chemical: The rains leads to rocks corrosion in the hills area and moving from it’s places to the land this leads to leachate in the ground water and increase the minerals content . Bacteriological : - There is no sewage system in the area people defecate around their house this in autumn season , this leads to leachate the human's feacal in to the wells. - watering of animals beside the wells and this lead to laechate the faucal in the wells. -The live stocks beside the water sources.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for MPEH the degree in (Environmental health)
university of khartoum water Quality Balola Area South Krodofan Environmental health water sources
Khadigha Abdullah Elhessen Alhassan, Assessment of Ground water Quality of Balola Area in South Krodofan State. – Khartoum : University of Khartoum, 2011. - 113 P. : illus., 28 cm., MS.C.