Socio-economic Impact of Transboundry Animal Diseases and Role of Global Health Standards in Mitigating their Adverse Effects

No Thumbnail Available
Mustafa, Ahmed
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Transboundry animal diseases (TADs) are those diseases of significant and essential impact on the economy, trade and/ or food scarcity of a group of countries. They can easily spread to other countries and reach epidemic proportions; and where control/management including exclusion requires cooperation between several countries. TADs have direct effect on socio-economic status and trade among countries. The occurrence of TADs in a country or region depends on many factors, e.g. climate, geographical location, isolation, pattern of livestock keeping, method of production and existence of disease control measures. The OIE develops and publishes two types of international health standards for animals and animal products – trade and biological standards. The OIE process for developing and updating standards is flexible and rapid, compared to the procedures of some other international organizations. Importantly, it provides a basis for continuous improvement to standards as new scientific information comes to light. The health measures described in Volume 2 of the Terrestrial Code and in sections 8 to 11 of the Aquatic Code are designed to prevent the disease in question of being introduced into an importing country, by taking into account the nature of the commodity and the animal health status of the exporting country. In the current trend of globalization, animal health measures have increasing importance to facilitate safe international trade of animals and animal products while avoiding unnecessary impediments to trade. In light of this, the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) encourages the members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to base their sanitary measures on international standards, guidelines and recommendations, set by organizations known as the ‘three sisters; namely, OIE, WHO and FAO which develop international standards, recommendations and guidelines for animal and plant health and human health (food safety). Outsourcing is one situation in which developing countries that are able to adopt standards, processes, and language of developed countries can benefit from the liberalization of the movement of goods and services, by undertaking some or all components of production or service provision for clients/consumers in the developed country, some economic benefits may occur to the developing country where the ‘outsourced’ service is provided.
This paper had been presented for promotion at the university of Khartoum. To get the full text please contact the other Ahmed Mustafa Hassan
Socio-economic; transboundry animal diseases; health standards