امتحانات البدائل في الجامعات السودانية دراسة حالة من كلية العلوم في جامعة الخرطوم والمقارنة الجزئية مع جامعة النيلين

Abstract
The study addresses the issue of substitute examinations at Sudanese universities; an issue that has remarkably stricken a phenomenal presence recently. The research aims at studying the factors affecting such a phenomenon and the reasons why student opt for this type of examinations and what they reap out of that. It also recommend ways of averting that problem. The descriptive-analytical method is used in the study. The research community was the University of Khartoum and the research sample consisted of the Faculty of Science. The Faculty was deliberately selected because of the many medical reports presented thereto. A comprehensive survey was conducted on all medical reports issued during the academic year 2001-2002, from the start-up to the end of the supplementary and substitute examinations. A partial comparison was performed with the Faculty of Science of the Neelain University. Primary and secondary information was used in the study. Twelve variables were studied. These were the date of medical report, type of student, type of report, stage, department, type of illness, the subject of chemistry, the subject of physics, specialization, student's academic performance in final examinations, student's academic performance in supplementary and substitute examinations and the number of subjects sat for at substitute exams. In the statistical analysis the study uses: displaying variables and percentages, Chi square independence test, coefficient of predictability Lambda, coefficient of ordinal association Gamma, correlation ratio Eta, Binomial test, Chi square goodness-of-fit test and testing the difference between two proportions. Then the study classifies reasons that make students opt for substitute exams into direct and indirect causes, some of the regulations taken by other universities to control the phenomenon were stated. One of the general findings is that there is significant difference between the percentages of reports in the faculties of science and economics in University of Khartoum-in favor of the faculty of science, there is significant difference between the percentage of reports in the faculties of science of the universities of Khartoum and Neelain-in favor of the University of Khartoum. In both universities the percentage of reports issued during the final examinations is significantly greater than that during the academic year. Also, reports of female students, are greater in number than those of male students; and external reports exceed internal ones. But these differences are significant In University of Khartoum only. In both universities the percentage of forth-year reports is the highest, with significant difference between the percentages of reports of different years in the college. In the University of Khartoum, there is no significant difference between the biology and mathematics departments, in terms of number of reports. But there is significant differences between the five departments in the University of Neelain. Malaria has the highest percentage of illnesses reported. As to the University of Khartoum, 65 % of students passed their substitute and supplementary exams. The percentage of those who pass their chemistry and physics exams amounts to 51.5 % and 50 %, respectively. In last years, substitute exams were not limited to students of low performance; in opposite of first year. On the contrary, the number of subjects for which students have substitute exams tends to decrease and more students pass their tests. A number of recommendations were presented to the clinic, and except in cases of accidents and surgery; to reject any external reports, to tighten control on females and to use the computer for monitoring the repetition of names during examinations and to reject any such repetition. Other recommendations to the faculty to continuously assess students performance during academic year instead of one final exam, not to allow substitutes for more than two academic years through the duration of study, and not to allow substitutes at first year. It is also advised not to allow a fourth-year student to take more than one subject as a substitute exam. As for other years, it is recommended that the number of substitutes should not exceed 20 % of the total number of subject. Also recommended to shorten the period between final exam and substitutes to just one week. Faculty should be keen on finding causes when the number of students sitting for substitute exams appear to be larger than normal; in any given subject and at any department. It is recommended also to appoint a social worker in each faculty, with an advisor for each year to assess the social conditions of the students. And to periodically revise faculty rules and regulations, and to provide an appropriate climate for the new, comprehensive scientific revolution to succeed. Finally, the study also includes a number of recommendations for future studies on the issue
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امتحانات البدائل في الجامعات السودانية دراسة حالة من كلية العلوم في جامعة الخرطوم والمقارنة الجزئية مع جامعة النيلين
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