Sanitary Quality of Raw Fluid Market Milk in Khartoum State

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Ali,Nada Abdel Wahab
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University of Khartoum
The objective of the present study was to examine sanitary quality of raw milk sold in Khartoum State and to assess consumer's opinion concerning milk purchased. The study was also intended to determine role of the government authorities in the sanitary control of market milk. A total of 100 milk samples were collected from several areas in Omdurman, Khartoum and Khartoum North. The field parameters which were used for examination of the sanitary quality were temperature, organoleptic tests and specific gravity of the milk. The organoleptic test revealed that 6 samples out of 100 had a yellowish colour which was attributed to normal physiologic factors. The temperatures of the milk at delivery time to the purchaser ranged between 31 to 39oC which was conducive to microbial multiplication. The specific gravity of the milk samples ranged between 1.025 to 1.033 gm/cm3. This parameter indicated that 13.7% of the samples could have been adulterated by addition of water. The parameters used for examining the samples in the laboratory were direct microscopic bacterial count (DMC), 10 minutes resazurin reduction test, milk ring test and the presence of coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and microbial growth inhibitors. Fourty-two per cent of the samples were graded as (A) by direct microscopic bacterial count, while 58% were of low grades. Meanwhile, 52% were graded as good to excellent by the 10 minutes resazurin reduction test, while 48% were graded as bad. Seventy-three per cent of the samples were milk ring test positive reactors while 74% of the samples contained coliform bacteria. Staph. aureus was isolated from 13% of the samples. The microbial growth inhibitors were detected in 17.4% of the samples. The consumers questionnaire revealed that 72.2% purchase milk from milk vendors and that the lapse of time between milking and receipt of the milk by the consumers varied. Fifty-four per cent of the customers received the milk more than 3 hours after milking; 80% of the consumers preferred fluid milk to powder milk; 44% of the consumers were satisfied with the keeping quality of the milk. The information obtained from the control authorities in Khartoum State revealed that limited, if any, sanitation tests were performed to detect quality of raw market milk sold in the State. Conclusion and recommendation for improvement of the sanitary standards of market milk in Khartoum State were finally derived.
Sanitary Quality ; Raw Fluid Market Milk; Khartoum State