The Economics of Sorghum Productivity in the Rain Fed Sub-sector: Case of Elgadarif and Elobeid Regions-Sudan

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Wafaa Ibrahim Ahmed Musa
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Sorghum is a staple crop for most of Sudanese citizens but it is facing with the problems of area variability and a decline in productivity. The study traced the role of sorghum as a strategic crop for food security and specifically it stressed on testing the availability of sorghum. The availability has been investigated by estimating the consumption gap using the relation between the available consumption and the actual consumed quantities. From the study of sorghum consumption gap it has been found that some years witnessed sorghum food gap (1990, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2004) while other years showed sorghum consumption surplus. Further the availability has been investigated based on the importance of rain fed farming system as a main sorghum producing sectors, comparing its two parts, the mechanized and traditional. Elgadarif area represents the mechanized and Elobeid represents the traditional sector. Therefore it is important to identify and analyze the main limiting factors that constrained the role of rain fed sector in sorghum availability. The data was analyzed using the descriptive and statistical type of analyses depending on secondary data collected from several sources. The analysis included a model for each sub-sector (Elgadarif and Elobeid). The dependent variable is the yield for the two models, while the independent variables are rain fall, sorghum price, alternative commodities price (sesame in Elgadarif & millet in Elobeid), finance and cost of production (for Elgadarif only). The effect of independent variables versus the dependent variable, are tested in the two models. The results showed right anticipated signs and most of the coefficient of the estimates were significant at different level of significance. In Elgadarif model the most important factors that affected sorghum productivity are rainfall, cost of production and finance .While, in Elobeid model rain fall and millet price have been the significant factor that affected sorghum productivity and hence its availability Lastly, the study recommended building up a strategic programme for food security based upon the core crop (sorghum), and hence calls for improving sorghum production and removing all constraints to get rid of food gap and creating surplus for export.
University of khartoum