Impact of Traffic Air Pollution on Traffic Policemen

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Date
2015-05-13
Authors
ELMOULA, AHLAM MOHAMED FADL
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Publisher
UOFK
Abstract
For the determination of The magnitude of traffic air pollution in Khartoum State was determined by measurement of the concentrations of the air pollutants CO, NO2, HC, SO2, Pb and SPM in air at 15 locations (the busiest crossroads) in the three towns i.e. Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman . This study aimed at the evaluation of the traffic air pollution problem in Khartoum state and its adverse health effects on the traffic policemen. For the assessment of the adverse health effects on the traffic policemen a questionnaire was designed and 100 policemen responded to it .Also from a group of 30 traffic policemen group urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed to determine the Pb levels . Also urine and blood samples were collected from 5 unexposed persons as control group. The results revealed that all the study group were males with ages greater than 30 years , minimum residence duration in Khartoum State was 10 years and they worked for more than 10 years with the average daily working hours ranging from 8 to 12 hours in range. 12% of them have previous work in agriculture or trade .98% of them recognized traffic air pollution as a problem, 12% of them weighed it as medium ,40% as high and 46% as very high and 2 has no opinion. 8% of the respondents are smokers. 10% always complain of flue and cough. 32% of chest tightness or difficulty in breathing, 30% of exhaustion or fatigue, 18% of abdominal problem, sight problems and myopia, 6% have hypertension and 9% complained from urinary related problems . All the respondents agreed that there should be strict legislation and regulations for environmental pollution control. 5 The results of the pollutants measurements revealed that SO2 was hardly detected in all the 15 locations, HC as traces in some of the locations. In the 15 locations NO2 , CO, Pb and SPM levels have mean concentrations of 1.77 + 0.55ppm, 7.6 + 2.22 ppm, 0.71 + 0.26 μg/m3 and 12.90 +13.99 mg/m3 respectively and ranges of 0.5 to 2.5 ppm, 3 to 11 ppm, 0.42 to 1.04 μg/m3 and 1.67 to 48.25 mg/m3respectively . The two locations with the highest concentrations of SPM are the busiest locations in the center of Khartoum in the commercial city area. .All the locations pollutants levels were within permissible exposure levels with the exception of SPM levels at 5 locations where their mean values exceeded the threshold TWA value of it which is 10.00 mg/m3. Lead concentration in the specimens of blood and urine from the exposed traffic policemen have a mean of 27.90 + 17.04 and 17.44 + 0.35 μg/100 ml respectively which are within the normal range of blood and urine levels i.e. 3 to 55 μg/100 ml and 75 -150μg/100 ml respectively. However when compared with the control group blood and urine mean concentrations (8.48 +1.77 μg/100 ml and 9.26 + 1.63 μg/100 ml respectively ) using the t-test the difference for blood levels was found to be not significant (p > 0.05) and for urine the difference was found to be significant (p < 0.05). From this study it was concluded that the level of traffic air pollution is rising and its health effects are not yet an occupational threat to the traffic policemen although some of the symptoms they are complaining from can be related to the exposure to the air pollutants. Continuos monitoring of the traffic pollution level is recommended as well as and more efforts for control of it at source and administrative control measures to reduce the risk of the hazards to the health of the traffic policemen.
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60page
Keywords
Impact ,Traffic, Air Pollution,Traffic Policemen
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