Prevalence of Poverty and its Determinants among Urban and Rural House-holds in Renk County

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Somaia Raghim Gafar, Gafar
Somaia Raghim Gafar, Gafar
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The objective of this study was to investigate the situation of poverty and its determinants in Renk, Upper Nile State -southern Sudan. The study depended on primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from households’ survey, using a simple random sample of 200 households in urban and rural areas of the Country. The study used different analytical methods. The study depended mainly on the Cost of Basic Needs Poverty Line (CBNPL), poverty line indicators of the World Bank of (US $ 1, 1.25 and 2 per person per day) to develop Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) measures and poverty profile. It also used the Lorenz Curve and the Gini Coefficient methods, as measures of income inequality for the whole area. The study also conducted multivariate regression analysis to identify the significant poverty determinants. The results revealed that households in Renk suffered from absence or shortage of basic needs and services such as education, clean safe tap water, electricity for national grid line and access to medical insurance programs. It also found that the respondents had high spending on food items in Renk, which was relatively higher in the urban areas. The results of the respondents' nutrition status indicated the existence of malnutrition in Renk, in general, based on WHO Recommended Dietary Allowance. The majority of the respondents (87 % and 73 % of the urban and rural households, respectively) lived under the estimated poverty line of SDG 3.5 and SDG 2.38 per person per day for urban and rural areas, respectively. The study also found high incidence of poverty in the rural areas, using the poverty line indicators of the World Bank. The Gini coefficient results of0.18 and 0.2 for urban and rural areas, respectively, indicated equity in income distribution in Renk. The results of poverty profile showed the existence of negative relationship between the poverty incidence and animal ownership in Renk. The results of the multivariate regression analysis showed that household size has significant, by negative relationship with poverty status in Renk, while ownership of assets, such as agricultural land and number of chicken in the rural areas, had significant and positive relationship with per capita spending. The study recommended promotion, adoption and implementation of pro-poor policies that encourage income generating activities and the provision of basic needs in Renk by the government of the national unity , the government of southern Sudan , the Administration of the Renk and the NGO’s and UN agencies
Prevalence of Poverty and its Determinants among Urban and Rural House-holds in Renk County