Prevalence and Vector Association of Tropical Theileriosis in Khartoum State

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Mohamed, Ali Siddig
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This survey was carried out in Soba and Kuku areas of Khartoum. The Prevalence of Bovine Theileriosis has been investigated in 8 farms at Soba and 16 farms at Kuku. Among the cattle investigated, the prevalence of the disease was 43% at Soba and 41.3% at Kuku. However, 9.33% of cattle at Soba area and 8.81% at Kuku area showed active clinical signs and confirmed by the detection of the parasite in blood. The prevalence of the disease among different breeds and age groups in relation to hygiene and management factors was discussed. All breeds and age groups were found involved. Active clinical cases of the disease in foreign breeds were below the expected level. The prevalence of the disease in foreign breeds was also lower than that of cross and local breeds, except in the yearling animals where it was higher. However, this study implied that the occurrence of the disease in Khartoum State is highly dependent on the management factors. Seven species of ticks namely Amblyomma lepiqum, Hyalomma a. anatolicum , H. dromedarii, H. impeltatum, H. rufipes, Rhipicephalus e. evertsi and R. sanguineus group were found to infest cattle at Soba, while at Kuku only four species; H. a. anatolicum, H. dromedarii, R .eevertsi and R. sanguineus group were identified. In both areas, Hyalomma a. anatolicum, the principal vector of Tropical Theileriosis was the dominant tick species and it about 70.0% of the tick fauna in Soba and 83.3% in Kuku. Infection rate in the salivary glands of Hyalomma a. anatolicum ranged from 28.3% to 53.5% (34.8%±10.1) in females and 26.7% to 36.6% in males. Stages were not detected in the haemolymph or crushed egg smears. However, all Hyalomma dromedarii ticks examined showed no sporozoite masses in their salivary glands. This study demonstrated that Tropical Theileriosis is highly prevalent in Khartoum among all breeds and cattle. It therefore constitutes a real threat to milk industry and breed improvement programmes. The high relative prevalence of the tick Hyalomma a. anatolicum, with such a degree of infection rate, is an indication of high infectivity with theileriosis.