Genetic Studies On The Leishmania Vector, Phlebotomus Spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Sudan

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El Basheer, Tyba El Basheer Khoujaly
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Phlebotomine sand flies transmit viruses and bacteria, but are most widely known as vectors of several Leishmania species to man and animals. Leishmaniasis whether cutaneous leishmaniasis or visceral leishmaniasis, is considered as a fatal disease. The cytogenetic and molecular biology of sand fly species from three sub-genera: Phlebotomus, Sintonius and Sergentomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were investigated. Flies were chosen from five areas associated with known endemic foci of leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Mitotic metaphase chromosomes (2n = 8, 2n = 10) from brain cell of adult sand flies were examined microscopically, after staining by a G-banding technique. Differences of G-banding and/or position of the centromere on chromosomes 1,2,3, 4 and 5 distinguished the different species. Although P. orietalis and P. papatasi represent the sub genus Phelobotomus, they possess the same number of chromosome 2n = 10 similar to that of S. ademi and S. antennatus of the sub genus Sergenotomyia. However, S. clydei, S. affinis and S. squamipleuis of the sub genus Sergenotomyia revealed a chromosome set of 2n = 8. This finding calls for revision of the classification based on taxonomic characters. P. papatasi and S. clydei from ovarian nurse cells have been recognized, the cytogenetic map was constructed from polytine and outosmesal chromosomes. Using amylase electrophoresis revealed significant difference between male and female amylase expression. Also different expression of the protein is reveled in different species
Genetic,Studies, Leishmania Vector, Phlebotomus,Sudan