The Adaptation Mechanisms and Coping Strategies to Environmental Degradation in Tokar Area – Red Sea State – Sudan

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Date
2015-06-13
Authors
Ibrahim Elsayed, Elbeshir
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Publisher
University of Khartoum
Abstract
This study focuses on the causal relationship between human adaptations and environmental degradation in Tokar area, the southeast part of the Red Sea State. In this area the traditional agro-pastoral adaptations adopted by local inhabitants were viable and adaptable to the natural environment of the area, collapsed and changed into multi-active households mechanisms based on both land based activities and wage labour in towns due to the degradation of natural resources which is caused by state intervention in rural economy, urbanization as well as the effect of climate. Two approaches are used in this work; the regional approach so as to study human adaptations in specific environment and the political ecology approach in which both the ecological and socio-political structures are combined to discuss causes of environmental degradation and changes in human adaptations. 300 samples are used for this study distributed between Tokar and Agig mahalyias (localities). This study finds that environmental degradation in this area is attributed to state intervention in rural economy, urbanization and the effect of climate. Due to the degradation of natural resources the traditional agropastoral adaptations were collapsed and changed into multi-active household mechanisms in which animal raising, agriculture, charcoal production, fishing and wage labour in towns are the activities performed by local inhabitants to cope with environmental degradation in this area. This study recommends the following recommendations to preserve the natural environment of the area and to improve the living conditions of local inhabitants: 1- To develop an effective local development approach in Tokar area.2- To develop governmental structures to deal with environmental degradation in the area. 3- Capacity building for local inhabitants and official employed in the field of resources utilization
Description
127 Pages
Keywords
The Adaptation Mechanisms and Coping Strategies to Environmental Degradation in Tokar Area – Red Sea State – Sudan, Degradation in Tokar Area, Coping Strategies to Environmental
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