Physical and Biochemical Studies on Factors Influencing Quality of Mango Fruit And Nectar.

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Abdel Rahim Saeed, El Sayed
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Three major commercial varieties of mangoes grown in the Sudan, namely Kitchener, Alphonso and Abu Samaka, were harvested either weekly or every ten days from a premature stage till the fruits started to ripen on the tree. Chemical and physical changes were followed for the hard and laboratory ripened fruits. Nectar was manufactured and its quality, as affected by harvest maturity, was evaluated chemically and organoleptically. The physical chemical constituents in various stages of maturity of the varieties Kitchener and Alphonso showed appreciable changes. Average weight of the fruit, loss in weight, colour of the pulp, changes in acidity and total soluble solids to acid ratio could be used as useful indices for maturity for nectar manufacture. The quality of nectar as judged by colour, flavor and viscosity was found to improve as the season advanced. The physical and chemical composition and quality of nectar manufacture from Abu Samaka fruits showed that this variety matures five weeks earlier than the traditional harvest date. Six cultivars of mangoes were analysed physically and chemically and their suitability for nectar manufacture was assessed. The results showed that considerable differences exist between the different cultivars and hence the quality of nectar. Investigation showed that there is a relationship between viscosity of the nectar, harvest time and the quantity of pectin in the fruit. The polyphenoloxidase enzyme (PPO) was detected and characterized in Alfonso and Kitchener, but could not be detected in Abu Samaka extract. Mango PPO was found to be very effective in catalyzing the oxidation of catechol followed by chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and D+ catechin. Asorbic acid is a powerful antioxidant in the inhibition of mango PPO followed by copper cholating compounds. Chromatographic separation and identification of polyphenolic compounds showed that the majority of polyphenolic compounds in mango fruit are hydrolysable tannis. Gallotannin, m-digallic acid, gallic acid and magniferine were identified.
Physical and Biochemical Studies on Factors Influencing Quality of Mango Fruit And Nectar.