In Vivoand in VitroAnthelmintic Activity of Balanites aegyptiacaand Artemisia Herba Albaon Haemonchuscontortus of Sheep

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Osman Elhassan Albadawi, Rogia
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This study was carried out to evaluate in vivoand in vitro anthelmintic effects of the plants Artemisia herba albaand Balanites aegyptiacaagainst the nematode of sheep Haemonchus contortus. For in vivostudy, 28 lambs (4-5 months old) of Hamari type were used. They were fed on dura and dry groundnut hay. During this period, they were given two doses of each of anthelmintics, antibiotics, and anticoccidial drugs to treat them from any possible infections. They were randomly divided into 7 groups of 4 lambs each. Six groups were orally infected with a single dose of3000 third larval stage of H. contortus(L3). Two of these groups were given orally 3g/kg bodyweight of A. herba alba water extract (one group was given the extract one day before infection and the second group after 25 days from infection). Similarly, the 3 rd and 4 th groups were given 9g/kg of fruit mesocarp of B. aegyptiaca(one group was given one day before infection and the second group after25 days from infection). The fifth group was treatedwith albendazole (5mg/kg b wt) after 25 days from infection. The sixth group was infected but not treated and left as a control group. The 7 th group was kept as uninfected untreated control. Faecal and blood samples were weekly collected for egg count and haematological values. The infected and treated lambs were slaughtered after 6 weeks from infection and the numbers of adult worms in the abomasi were counted. All infected animals showed a significant decrease in Hb concentration, PCV, RBCs count and liveweight gain compared with the uninfected control. Animals treated with A. herba albaand B. eagyptiaca before infection showed slight decrease in egg per gram (epg) and total worm burden, compared with the infected untreated control. Treatment after infection with B. aegyptiacashowed anthelmintic efficacy of 69.9% and maximum reduction of 69.6% in epg of faeces on day 14 post treatment, compared with 62.5% and 61%, respectively for A. herba alba and 97.4% and 98.5%, respectively for albendazole. Lambs treated with A. herba albaand B. aegyptiacabefore infection, showed no significant increase in Hb, PCV and RBCs count. However, animals treated after infection, exhibited significant increase in Hb, PCV and RBCs count two weeks post treatment. No significant differences were observed in leukocyte count, eosinophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils and liveweight gain in animals treated before or after infection compared with the infected untreated control.No evidence of toxicity of A. herba albaand B. aegyptiacawas observed during or after infection. For in vitrostudy, aqueous and methanolic extracts of A. herba alba and B. aegyptiacaat concentrations of 5,10, 15 and 50 mg/ml were conducted on adultsand larvae (L3) of H. contortus. The extracts of the two plants exhibited anthelmintic effects on the adults. The dose rate of 50 mg/ml showed a significant anthelmintic effect in A. herba albawith greater activity of methanolic extract(100% mortality after 2 hours) than the aqueous extract (90% mortality after 6 hours). However, the aqueous extract of B. aegyptiacahad a higher anthelminticactivity (100% mortality after 6 hours at 50mg/ml) compared with the methanolic extract (70% mortality after 6 hours at 50mg/ml). The aqueous and methanolic extracts of A. herba albaand B. aegyptiacaas well as albendazole had no effect on the larvae. The ultrastrucure of some of the nonmotile worms after treatments with the plants was examined under electron microscope. Damage was observed in the tegumental muscles,digestive tract and reproductive system. The muscle fibers were hypertrophied, the microvilli of the intestines were spaced, some were lost, others were irregular and the reminders were reduced in size. The vetelline glands of the reproductive system showed numerous droplets and vaculations. The mitochondria became elongated; some were small and others were swollen. It is concluded that B. aegyptiacaand A. herba albahad an in vivo and in vitroanthelmintic effects on the adult H. contortus, but they lacked prophylactic activities when given before infection.