Poverty, Food Security and Malnutrition in an urban and rural setting: Case study the former West Kordofan State

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Hashim Suliman, Ibrahim
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The food and nutrition security situation was investigated in the former West Kordofan State, in Al Nuhud and six surrounding villages as examples of urban and rural areas. The study included 100 urban and 120 rural households using the cluster sampling covering 1389 individuals. A questionnaire was used to collect information on socioeconomic status, food intake and nutritional status of all households\\\\\\\' residents .Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS and EPI-INFO computer program. Incomes of <300 SDG reported by 68.2% of households of which 71.3% were rurals, and 31.8% earned >300 SDG of which 81.4% were urbans. 76.8% of the households earned <$1/day (68.0% rurals). Thus there was more poverty in rural areas (P=0.000). This was reflected in the food expenditure as 90.8% of the rurals spent <10 SDG/day compared to 45.0% by urbans (P=0.000) and in the normal number of meals/day as 2 meals/day in rural (80.0%) and 3 meals/day in urban (85.0%) households (P=0.000). Rurals also lived in poorer housing conditions e.g. type of house, number of rooms, source of drinking water and lighting. Food frequency showed that bread was the energy food preferred in urban and sorghum acida in rural households. Meat was consumed daily or every-other-day by 86.0% of urbans but once/week by rurals (82.5%) while pulses\\\\\\\' consumption was low (once/week), higher in rural areas (59.0%). Urbans (42.0%) consumed vegetables daily while rurals (71.7%) consumed it once/week. Fruits\\\\\\\' intake was once/week, mostly (66.7%) by urbans. Hence the urban diet was better than the rural one in terms of frequency of intake. Urbans with relatively better income spent more on food (5-15 SDG by 90.0%) while one-quarter of rurals spent <5 SDG and two-thirds spent 5-<10 SDG. Income positively correlated with food expenditure (P=0.000) and number of meals/day (P=0.000). Energy and protein intakes were higher in urban households (P=0.000). Cereals contributed more to total energy (P=0.000) and meat to total protein (P=0.000) in urban than rural households. Factors that influenced intakes of both were further elucidated. Energy and protein intakes increased with increasing incomes, the increase was significant for both in urban areas (P=0.027 and P=0.000) but significant only for energy in rural ones (P=.042) but not for protein (P=0.053). Food expenditure followed the same trend, but the increase in intake of both was only significant in rural areas (P=0.042 and P=0.025). Number of meals/day significantly affected energy and protein intakes in urban (P=0.006 and P=0.002) but not in rural households. Household size significantly influenced the intake of energy and protein in both urban and rural households. Energy intake was adequate in urban but not rural households (P=0.000) and also protein intake (P=0.000). More urban households were food secure (60.0%) than rural ones (38.3%). Under nutrition as wasting (present status) or stunting (past status) was high among the under ten children. Among the under five wasting prevalence was 37.9%, 18.3% severe cases and 23.7% stunted, 11.4% severely. There was more wasting and stunting in rural areas ((P=0.003 and P=0.001). Similarly for the 5-<10 children with 55.9% wasted (23.7% severely) and 11.4% stunted with 4.3% severely. Both wasting and stunting were higher in rural areas but the differences were not significant. Among those >10 years old, C.E.D. prevalence was 46.4%, 18.0 severely. C.E.D. was very high (85.7%) among the adolescent 10-<18 group especially severe cases (58.1%). It was more prevalent in rural compared to urban households (P=0.017), among males than females (P=0.017) and among rural than urban females (P=0.027). In the income-generating category (18-60 years old) under nutrition was 33.3% with 6.5% severe cases. It was higher in rural than urban households (P=0.000), slightly higher but not significant in females compared to males (P=0.526) and also higher among rural males (P=0.000) and females (P=0.000) compared to urban ones. The association between the selected socioeconomic parameters and the nutritional status was investigated. Monthly income had an inverse relationship (P=0.000), food expenditure (P=0.001/0.004) and number of meals/day (P=0.007/0.006) a direct relationship. However, household size relationship was only significant in rural areas (P=0.018). Recommendations for possible implementations are suggested to the authorities for improving the food and nutrition security in North Kordofan State
Poverty, Food Security,Malnutrition,urban,rural setting, West Kordofan State