Morphology and Morphometry of the Spleen of the One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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El Sadig Ismail Eisa Mohamed, Mohamed
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The spleen was situated on the left side, in the paralumbar region, attached caudally to the left kidney, the caudo-dorsal sac of the rumen cranio-dorsally and to the transverses abdominis muscles laterally. The organ was crescent-shaped. Its lesser curvature (cranial border) showed some indentations. The fresh organ was dark-grayish in colour, but turned almost grayish when exposed to air. The splenic artery proper supplied the middle and distal thirds, while the proximal third was supplied by the two lesser splenic arteries. In all the specimens examined, the celiac artery gave rise to hepatic, splenic and left gastric artery. A common trunk of hepatic and splenic artery was noticed in only one specimen. The splenic arteries, both proper and lesser ones, divided successively until reaching the smallest branches, and showed a simple arborizing pattern. This was clearly seen in prepared corrosion casts. Three segments or arterial branches were not observed. Histological studies revealed that the capsule was covered by mesothelium, a part of the peritoneum. The capsule consisted of elastic and collagen fibres, and smooth muscle cells. Three distinct layers were also recognized in the capsule. The trabeculae consisted of components similar to those found in the capsule with slight variations in arrangement and thickness. Three components (white pulp, marginal zone and red pulp) were distinguished in the parenchyma. In addition, strands of smooth muscles and collagen fibres of the capsule also extended into the parenchyma. The white pulp was in a form of lymphatic nodules, the marginal zone was characteristically red in colour and the red pulp was rather pale due to the small number of erythrocytes. The dromedary spleen could be classified as of sinusal type, although the sinuses are few. The white pulp constituted of 13.45%, the red pulp 73.73% and the connective tissue (capsule, trabeculae and smooth muscle) constituted of 11.41% of the volume of the spleen. In conclusion, the spleen of the camel was characterized by the facts that it had no diaphragmatic attachment, and was not under cover of any ribs, the proximal third of spleen was supplied by two lesser splenic arteries and the second lesser splenic artery (arising from the left ruminal artery) had not been reported in the literature. Because of the abundance of smooth muscles in the capsule and trabeculae, the spleen of the camel could store and eject large volumes of blood. The circulation in the spleen of the camel was of the open type.
Morphology and Morphometry of the Spleen of the One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius