Evaluation of Imported Wheats (Triticum Aestivum) and A Local Cultivar

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Thoria Elnageeb Akasha Ali
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University of khartoum
This study was carried out on one Sudanese wheat cultivar and seven imported wheats obtained from Sudanese Standards and Metrology Organization, Port Sudan- Branch. The imported wheat are Canadian, Australian, Syrian, German, Ukrainian, Turkish, Argentinean wheat, in addition to Sudanese wheat cultivar, (Wadi Elneel) which was obtained from Wad Madani Agricultural Research Corporation. chemical components, gluten quantity and quality, alpha- amylase activity, rheological properties, and bread specific volume, sensory evaluation for bread made from extracted flour, were carried out. The results showed that Syrian, Argentinean and Turkish wheats exhibited low moisture content, 10.52, 10.24 and 9.66% respectively. Where as Australian, Canadian, German and Ukrainian exhibited high moisture content, 10.74, 11.37, 11.87 and 11.83% respectively. Sudanese cultivar (Wadi Elneel) exhibited the lowest moisture content 7.41%. It is observed that the physical properties of the samples have direct relationship with their protein content and gluten quantity and quality. Protein content ranged from 12.97 to 11.50 %. Australian wheat gained the highest protein content where as Turkish wheat gained the lowest value. Sudanese cultivar gained 12.10 % protein content. gluten content which ranged from 25.53 to34.18%, Australian wheat exhibited the highest value where as Turkish wheat, gained the lowest value. Gluten Index showed significant variation among the eight samples. It ranged from 82.39 to 76.37. The highest value of gluten Index exhibited by Canadian wheat while Sudanese cultivar gained the lowest value. Farinograph readings for Australian and Canadian wheats showed that water absorption, dough development and stability time were 66.6, 65.3%, 5.5, 5.2 min., 6.6, 10.1min. , respectively. Where as water absorption for Syrian, Argentinean, German, Turkish, Ukrainian and Sudanese cultivar were 62.4, 62.1, 59.0, 56.1, 58.8 and 63.4% respectively. The dough development time was 4.7, 4.2, 2.0, 1.5, 1.9 and 4.0 min. respectively. While dough stability time was 4.4, 3.0, 3.3, 3.6, 3.3 and 3.2 min. respectively. For Extensograph readings Canadian and Australian wheats exhibited optimum ratio of resistance to extensibility which increased for German, Ukrainian and Turkish wheats. for Sudanese wheat, it increased from 1.7 to 1.9. The highest ratio was gained by Argentinean wheat which increased from 2.5 to 4.1. Canadian and Australian wheat exhibited the highest value of specific volume, 5.03 and 4.84cm3/g respectively. Where as Sudanese cultivar and Argentinean wheat lowest value 4.08 and 4.01 cm3 /gm respectively. Generally, hard wheat (Canadian and Australian wheat) produced high flour quality for bread making. From the end use quality, Sudanese wheat cultivar can be considered as soft wheat, inspite of it’s high protein content.
ATHESIS Submitted to the University of Khartoum In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (Agric.)
Triticum aestivum imported wheat Australian wheat Turkish wheat Argentinean wheat Sudanese wheat Food Science and Technology University of Khartoum
Thoria Elnageeb Akasha Ali, Evaluation Of Imported Wheats (Triticum aestivum) And a Local Cultivar. – Khartoum : University of Khartoum, 2008. - 143 P. : illus., 28 cm., M.Sc.