Level And Movement Of Pesticide ContaminantsIn The Dangerous Area Of Port Sudan HarbourAnd Their Impact On Human And Aquatic Life

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Date
2015-06-15
Authors
Abubaker, Omayma A. Wahid
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UOFK
Abstract
Pesticides residues in selected locations along the Red Sea coast around Port Sudan city were monitored during the period March 2003 to January 2004. The locations selected included; the dangerous area in Port Sudan harbour, where huge a mount of chemicals dispatch remains for long time, and three other locations to the north and south of the dangerous area. The last locations were selected to determine the horizontal movement of pesticide contaminants due to ocean current. The northern site was located 7km north Port Sudan harbour at Alragaba area. The southern sites were located 3km at the entrance of the harbour and 8km to the south of the harbour. At each location along the coast three soil samples, from coastal land, three water samples and three sediment samples from adjacent sea water were taken. The collected samples were subject to chemical, physicochemical and biological analysis. The chemical analysis included the determination of the level of pesticides in soil, sediment and sea water using a gas liquid chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (FID).The physicochemical analysis included measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and nutrients, while the biological analysis focuses mainly on the counts of planktons as bio-indicator for pollution by pesticides. Two types of questionnaire were designed, one to investigate the extent of residence exposure to pesticide contaminants in the dangerous area (north to this area lies Alaskilla resident area), while the other was designed to investigate the extent of exposure of the local worker to pesticide contaminants. The results of the study revealed the following: Sea water seems polluted with six major pollutants in location one (the dangerous area) and the major contaminants detected included fenpropathrin in 100% of the samples with a range of 0.020-0.85 ppb, malathion in 100% of the samples with a range of 0.35-1.5 ppb, omethoate in 66% of the samples with a range of ND-0.367 ppb, fenitrothion in 33% of the samples with a range of ND-0.157 ppb, DDT was detected in location one only in 66% of the samples with a range ND-0.01ppb, and dimetan in 33% of the samples with a range of ND-0.051ppb. The level of contamination is higher in site one than site two. Sea water of the other sites, three and four appeared free from pesticides contaminants safe for fenpropathrin which was only detected in 33% of the samples of site three and in the range of ND-0.0002 ppb. Sea sediments appeared free from pesticides contaminants safe for fenpropathrin which was detected in 33% of the samples in site one and four and in the range of ND-0.0007ppb.On the other hand the soil samples appeared to contain measurable levels of four pesticides in 33% of samples collected from one site only which is the dangerous area, site one; fenpropathrin in a range of ND-0.015ppb, omethoate in a rage of ND-3ppb, heptachlor in the rage of ND-4.5ppb, DDT in the range of ND-0.36ppb. Other soil samples in this site and other sites appear free from tested contaminants. iii Fenpropathrin appear to be a major contaminant detected in sea water, sediments and soil samples. Its considerable movements to other sites was also noticed. Other contaminants seems to have limited movement and the confined themselves to the source or close to it (i.e. site one and two). Results of physicochemical analysis indicated that the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) was found lowest at location two, 0.598 mg/L, followed by location one, 1.040 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was highest in location four 5.36 mg/L. The highest concentration of suspended solids (S.S) was found as 0.190 mg/L at location one followed by location three 0.10566 mg/L compared to location four, 0.089 mg/L. Silicate concentration was found to be 4.915 umol/L at location three. The lowest concentration of silicate was 2.22 umol/L measured at location two. Silicate was found as 2.60 umol/L at location one and 3.29 umol/L at location four. Nitrite values were highest at location one, 3.97 umol/L and their lowest value was measured at location three, 2.13 umol/L. Measured phosphate was highest at location one, 0.929 umol/L and location two 0.706 umol/L. The lowest concentration of phosphate was 0.488 umol/L measured at location three. The pH values in all locations range between 8.24 and 8.79. The highest number of phytoplanktons was found 883 cells/L at location four, apotentially non-polluted area while lowest number of phytoplanktons (366 cells/L) was found at location one which is expected to be more polluted. Zooplanktons were found highest at location four, 578 cells/L and lowest at location two, 227 cells/L. Questionnaire results indicated the low level of knowledge about hazards of chemicals among both worker and neighbours. Both groups claim to suffer from symptoms related to pesticides exposure specially cholinesterase inhabitance (OPs and carbamates). Workers claim that they lack proper training in all aspects of safety Although the levels detected were not high as mentioned before, yet preventive control measurer, are badly needed to prevent the deterioration of environmental quality; these measures include, better handling and quick dispatch of stocks, improving the storage conditions and provision of training and guidance to workers and neighbours on safety measures.
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University of khartoum
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