Survey of the pests and diseases of honeybees in Sudan

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El-Niweiri, Mogbel Ahmed Abdalla
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A survey of the honeybee pests and diseases in Sudan were curried out. About 117 colonies were inspected in addition to 324pakages of imported honeybee colonies and 25 colonies of Apis florea. All inspected colonies in all locations were found to be free of American foul brood, European foulbrood, Chalkbrood, Sackbrood and Stonebrood. The only brood disease found was Serratia marcescens, in Khartoum State 3 out of 117 (2.563%). Dysentery was the only adult disease found during this survey in Kordofan State and its percent infestation was 2 out of 117 (1.709%). The parasitic mite Varroa. jacobsoni was discovered in Sudan in this study for the first time. All Khartoum apiaries were infested with this mite and 75% of the inspected colonies had positive infestation. High incidence was found in Shambat apiary 100% followed by E-l kadaro apiary 75% and El-faki Hashim apiary 50%. Among bees the mean incident percent in Khartoum was 1.0902%, high infestation was found in Shambat 1.4756% followed by E-l kadaro 1.2046% and El-faki Hashim 0.5904%. In addition to that 27.2727 % of wild colonies were infested with mites, incidence of 0.2553% The mean percentage of infested colonies by Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), Ants (different spp), Small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), large hive beetle (Hyplostoma fuligineus) and Hawk moth Acherontia atropos was, 86.325% 77.295%, 2.389%, 2.194i % and 0.543% respectively. The Small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), the large hive beetle (Hyplostoma fuligineus) and the Bee wolf (Palarus latifrons) were recorded for the first time in Sudan. Some insects such as Earwigs Silverfish, Cockroaches, Praying Mantids, Dragonflies, Termites, Locust, Dwarf bee (Apis florea) and the sting less bees were also reported as a pest of honeybees The major mammalian pests that found in Sudan were Man (honey hunters), Livestock (Cattle and Camels), Squirrel and Honeybadger (Mellivora capensis). The last one was reported as a pest of honeybee colonies in Sudan in this study for the first time. The bee-eaters birds of honeybee colonies were: Merops apiaster, M.nubicus, M.albicolus, M.orientalis and M.pusilus. The honey guide Indicator indicator and the ground hornbill Bucorvus abyssinicus were recorded as a pest of honeybee colonies for the first time in Sudan. It was found that Sudanese honeybees were hygienic colonies resist pests and diseases. It was found that 80 % of the preventive methods were the main control measure of the bee pests and diseases in Sudan and only 20% used chemical methods.
April 2004