Studies on Some Aspects of the Biology, Ecology and Control of the Store Pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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Khamis, Sara Abdalla Mohammed
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The economy of the Sudan depends mainly on the agricultural sector,which contributes much to the domestic product. Wheat is an strategic crop,its consumption in the Sudan, is more popular in urban areas in addition to thenorthern state where most of the people are habitually wheat consumers.T.castaneum is considered as the most important pest attacking the storedgrains in dry northern regions – Khartoum Province – where the presentinvestigation was carried out. The current investigation includes, biological,ecological and control studies of T.castaneum. The length duration ofdevelopmental stages of T.castaneum in summer period was short in differentvarieties of wheat and sorghum grain. Duration period of 28.13, 27.63, 29.33and 31.35 days were obtained in Wadi Elneil, Debeira, Elnelian amd sorghumrespectively. While in winter period the length of duration of developmentalstages was long. The infestation build-up indicated that the insect populationincreased within period of higher relative humidity and decreased withinlower relative humidity period. The percentage weight loss in differentvarieties of wheat and sorghum rushed grain increased within storage period.There was no significant variation in the attraction of the tested crushed grainsto T.castaneum, although more larvae were found in Debeira and Wadi Elneilthan sorghum and Elnelian.The temperature and relative humidity have significant effect on thetotal development period of T.castaneum, the relative humidity did not affectthe incubation period. The optimum temperature for short incubation periodbetween 30 – 35؛ C. In the larval duration, increase in temperature andrelative humidity reduced the larval duration, the optimum condition rangedbetween 30 – 35؛C and 70% - 90% RH. At 40؛C, either at 70% or 90% RH,the larvae were dead. In the pupal duration, the temperature had a significanteffect rather than relative humidity, it was decreased when the temperatureincreased. The optimum conditions for shortest pupal duration was observedat 35؛C and 70%, 90% RH. At 40؛C, the pupae could not reached adult stage.Application of neem seed kernel powder at different conditions (0.25g,0.50g, 1.00g, 1.50g and 2.00g) against adults of T.castaneum reared incrushed grain tested, reduced the percentage of weight loss as a result ofincrease in mortality of larvae and adults. The efficacy of the neem seedkernel powder in creased as the concentration increased from 0.5g to 2.00gwhen compared with standard treatment of Malathion (0.2g).The repellent activities of neem seed kernel powder increased withincrease in the concentration from 0.25g – 2.00g after 24 hours of treatment
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)