Studies On Some Camel Production Traits and Health In Butana Area: Sudan

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Elhag, Adam
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Information concerning husbandry management systems, feeding, nutrition and production performance of camels are scanty. The overall objective of this study is therefore to probe the changes in herds and their structure specially herd population with regard to breeds, the current production system; production performance , the constrain that hinder camel production, and the socio-economic status of the camel herders. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed to cover the above mentioned aspects. A follow up for one year for milk production in open grazing system and semi-open grazing system. An experiment in race was done for work performance. The result obtained showed three production systems, the nomadic migratory 22.0%, seminomadic 35.9% and the sedentary production system 40.7%. It also reflected a negative decrease (-10.97%) in camel herd population under migratory system and a positive increase of (5.2%) in camel herd population in the sedentary system for years 2001-2003. Milk yield per lactation for migratory was 827.2kg and 2925.0kg for the sedentary system. The mean herd size was 62 head for migratory and 118 for sedentary, with male to female percentages of 25.6% and 74.4% respectively. Irrespective of sex , age wise less than one year represented 14.4% of the herd, less than 4 years 23.9%, less than 14 years 48.9% and above 14 years was 12.8%. The socio-economic status of the herders showed the decrease of nomadism along years 1984, 1994, 2003 with percentage of 73.3%, 33.0% and 22.0% respectively. Each years is independent of the other and not on an additive basis. The results reflected illiteracy among herders groups of age (15-29 years) was 47.8% and for (30-49 years) was 67.7% and for (above 50 years) was 67.7%. Economically the yearly expenditure for all studied tribes (migratory) was exceeding the yearly income to rates approaching the double with the exception of Bawadra tribe (Sedentary) where the yearly income exceeded the yearly expenditure. The present situation of camel herd population and structure, the system of production practiced and socio-economic status were studied and conclusions and recommendations were presented. This revealed that the migratory system is no longer suitable as an economically feasible system for camel production. The constrains include natural disasters as drought and man made halters as encroachment of mechanized agriculture on pastues