Epidemiological Observations and Control Assessment of Schistosomiasis in the Northern region of the Gezira Irrigation Scheme, Sudan

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Nour, Yasir Abd el-Mageed Sulieman Mohamed
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This study was carried out in two residential sites in the North of the Gezira irrigation scheme, Bit el Hag village and Hag Ali camp. The main objective of the investigation is to determine the pre- and post-interventional infection parameters of Bilharzia among the villagers and the school children. In addition, Gambusia and freshwater leeches were designed in laboratory experiments for exploring their efficacy as biocontrol agents of egg-masses, neonates and adults Bulinus and Biomphalaria snails. The overall prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni among school children of the camp were 73.2% and 132.9 eggs per gram, while those of S. haematobium were 4.8% and 162.2 eggs per 10 ml, respectively. The overall infection rates of S. mansoni and S. haematobium among the villagers were 69.1% and 8.7%, while the equivalent intensities were 158.5 and 31.6 eggs, respectively. The two infection parameters among the school children of Bit el Hag were 77.5 % and 100 (epg) for S. mansoni and 7.1 % with 79.4 eggs for S. haematobium, respectively. The prevalence and intensity of the intestinal Bilharzia among Bit el Hag villagers were 64.6 % and 79.4 (epg), while those of the urinary Bilharzia were 3.4 % and 79.4 eggs, respectively. The statistical analysis ensured significant variations in the two infection parameters in relation to the age-classes and the gender of the villagers. The finding pointed that both intestinal and urinary Bilharzia were peaked in males and among the age-group (10 - 15) years. On the other side, although a significant score was obtained in the two infection parameters related to the water-related occupants, but no consistent results related the infection parameters to the numbers of rooms in the two surveyed areas, Although reasonable reductions were obtained in the intensities of the two types of Bilharzia among the school children, but unfortunately their equivalent infection rates were significantly increased. The findings of the designed laboratory experiments assured that both Gambusia fish and the freshwater leech were very voracious to the egg-masses and neonates, but not the adults of Bulinus and Biomphalaria snails. All exposed egg-masses, neonates and adults of the two snails significantly declined, if not immediately disappeared, on exposure to the combination set. The biology of the investigated biocontrol agents, together with other merits like being indigenous and acclimatized to the chemical riskohazards of the agricultural schemes, all these suggested further evaluation of the candidates in field conditions. Thus, a breeding programme of the mentioned biocontrol agents should be manipulated in a way to represent a constant head supply to the field. It is necessary to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively schistosome-snails in the canals at least for one year, pre- and post-intervention. Finally - based on the findings of the investigation, some effective measures for combating the disease were recommended
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Epidemiological,Observations,Control Assessment,Schistosomiasis,Northern region, Sudan