مؤثرات الوراثة والبيئة علي النمو العقلي للطفل بين التراث الإسلامي وعلم النفس

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Date
2015-06-14
Authors
إسراء محمد البشير مفرح أحمد, أحمد
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Abstract
The importance of the topic of this study (The Effects of Heredity And Environment On The Mental Development Of The Child Between The Islamic Heritage And Psychology), arises among the efforts to consider the original Islamic religion texts as a truthful source and guide for human knowledge. The objective of the study is to explore the opinions in the Islamic heritage and psychology concerning the effects of heredity and environment on the mental development of the child. The historical comparative method is used to document and analyze the opinions on the topic. A central goal of this study is to establish the importance of the Quraninc source in the humanistic studies on one hand, and to compare the human knowledge on the topic of the study on the other hand. The investigation is anchored on the knowledge extracted from the verses of the Quran as the first source of knowledge to account for when discussing the topics before considering the opinions of the human scholars from both sides. It is obvious that well established, scientifically sound human knowledge does not contradict what is detailed in the Quran about human nature and development. While what is not detailed in the Quran is an open arena for opinion differences between scholars through out time and place. Although so many disciplines and branches of study and research took interest in the study of mind and mind development, the cognitive psychology branch is chosen to be compared with the Islamic heritage, to high-light the opinions about mind and mind development. Many sources of Islamic thought are compared to the works and theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky from the cognitive psychology field. The comparison yielded the agreement between the Islamic heritage and psychology on considering the period of childhood to be the most important period in the (و) development of the human mind. For childhood is the period of body maturation and development which is an indication to the child's ability to bear the religion and social responsibilities in the Islamic heritage. And mind development continues after childhood to targets that differ between scholars. Also the comparison between the Islamic heritage and psychology showed the agreement on the importance of heredity and environmental factors on the mental development, with differences between the scholars in high- lighting one of the heredity or environment factors without denying the effects of the other factors. In addition, the Islamic heritage is distinguished by establishing God's will as the dominant factor that affect other factors, without denying the importance of free will and choice in human development. Also the relationship between mind and language and moral development is investigated, for the importance of language and morals in human societies. Regarding language, major differences aroused between the scholars on both sides on the origin and development of language. With some scholars accepting the innate factor, and others the acquisition factors. Finally the debate was settled by admitting the innate nature of language and it's relation to the mind. And accepting the importance of the surrounding environment in acquiring the different human languages. On the other side the comparison yielded semi agreement between scholars on the extrinsic nature of morals and the importance of the mind in it's development and acquisition from the surrounding environment. The conclusion of the study is that both Islamic heritage and psychology confirmed the inseparable importance of heredity and environment factors on the mental development of the child
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مؤثرات الوراثة والبيئة علي النمو العقلي للطفل بين التراث الإسلامي وعلم النفس
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