Some Cultural Practices as an Integrated Pest Management for Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill) Insect Pests

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Date
2015-06-16
Authors
Dahab, Safa Mohamed Mohamed
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Publisher
UOFK
Abstract
The study was carried out at Khartoum state (Shambat and Omdurman) during three tomato Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill) cropping winter seasons: 2002/03, 2003-/04 and 2005/06. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of some cultural practices as a component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to control tomato insect pests and simultaneously increase the yield. The study also assessed the effect of these practices on micro-climate and growth of the crop. Effect of the planting method (direct seeding vs. transplanting) and in row spacing of 20, 30 and 40 cm, in Shambat area during two winter seasons (2002/03 and 2003/04) was evaluated. Planting method and spacing had significant effects on the incidence of white fly (WF), Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). Direct seeding and closer spacing (20 cm) resulted in higher incidence of WF, compared to transplanting and wider spacing in the two seasons. Populations of Aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glov.), (which appeared only in season 2002/ 03) and African bollworm (ABW), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), were higher in the direct seeded tomato closer spacing (20cm). The occurrence of fruits with sun scald was higher with direct sown plants with wider spacing (40 cm), compared to closer spacings. Furthermore, the effect of planting methods and spacing on growth showed variation between the two seasons. Number of leaves and branches per plant were higher for direct sown tomato at 40 cm spacing, while those of roots were not affected. Marketable tomato yield was affected by method of planting and spacing. Higher yield was attained with direct seeding at 20 cm spacing in the two seasons. Neem seed kernel aqueous-extract (NSKAE) was sprayed at two intervals 4 and 7 days at Shambat for the control of tomato insect pests during the two seasons (2002/03 and 2003/04). WF population was reduced by application of NSKAE compared to the control in the two seasons. Furthermore, infestation by ABW and aphids was also reduced by the use of NSKAE at the two intervals compared to control, but there were no significant differences between the two intervals for the two seasons. Marketable yield increased by the application of NSKAE at both intervals compared to control. Effect of irrigation intervals (7, 10 and 12 days) and the application of nitrogen fertilizer at three rates (0N, 1N and 2N) were studied in presence of pesticide treatment and control at two sites (i.e. Omdurman and Shambat) during season 2005/06. At Omdurman site in the pesticide-treated and un-treated sites, the WF population found to be affected by the irrigation intervals and the fertilizer doses. The WF population increased with longer irrigation intervals and higher nitrogen dosages; whereas infestation by the ABW was not affected by the irrigation intervals or nitrogen fertilizer. However, the incidence of blossom end rot was higher with longer irrigation intervals and higher nitrogen doses. While temperature readings were higher with longer irrigation intervals, relative humidity (R.H.) decreased. Plant growth parameters, e.g. Height, number of leaves, branches and leaflets per plant, were not significantly affected by the treatments. The fresh- and dry-weights of leaves and shoots increased with increased nitrogen fertilizer, while those of the roots were not affected. Marketable yield increased with the 10 days irrigation interval and 2N fertilizer rates. On the other hand, the pesticide treatment at Shambat site, the irrigation intervals and the nitrogen fertilizer rates affected the incidence of blossom end rot which was higher with longer irrigation intervals and higher nitrogen doses. The plant growth parameters were affected by nitrogen rates i.e. increased with 2N. Marketable yield was higher at 10 days irrigation interval and one dose of nitrogen (W2x1N) for the untreated, and 10 days and two doses of nitrogen (W2 x 2 N) for the treated plots. Effect of three irrigation intervals namely (7, 10 and 12 days) was investigated on transplanted tomato in two experiments; one sprayed with pesticides the other without the use of any pesticides at two sites (Omdurman and Shambat). in season 2005/06. At Omdurman site, WF population increased with increasing the irrigation intervals for the treated and untreated experiments. ABW was not affected by the irrigation intervals. The incidence of blossom end rot increased with longer irrigation intervals compared to shorter intervals. Plant height, number of leaves and number of branches per plant were higher at shorter irrigation intervals (7days), and lower with longer intervals. While fresh- and dry-weights of leaves were higher with shorter irrigation intervals, those of shoots and roots were not affected by irrigation intervals. Marketable yield was not significantly affected by irrigation intervals but higher yields were recorded at shorter intervals. At Shambat site, the effect of irrigation intervals on WF population, infestation by ABW, and Incidence of blossom end rot was not significant, but they increased with longer irrigation intervals. Plant height, number of leaves, branches and leaflets per plant showed higher values at shorter intervals. Fresh- and dry- weights of leaves were higher with shorter interval (7days), fresh- and dry- weights of shoots and roots were not affected, but higher weights were obtained with shorter irrigation interval. The effect of irrigation intervals on marketable yield was not significant, but higher yields were obtained with shorter irrigation intervals. White fly population has decreased with insecticides treatment which was reflected on increased marketable yield.
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Keywords
Tomato
Citation
University of khartoum
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