دراسة الخصائص الهيدروليكية لنظام الري بالتنقيط وتأثيره على كفاءات الري مقارنة بالري السطحي لإنتاج الطماطم تحت ظروف صنعاء

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Date
2015-05-21
Authors
المجاهد, عبد الكريم محمد احمد
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UOFK
Abstract
This work was conducted at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture – University of Sana\\\\\\\'a during the period 2004/2005. The study included a surface drip irrigation system with two types of drippers: the built-in (GR) and the built-on or pressure non-compensating (Euro-key) emitters, the surface irrigation method on its own and when a chemical soil conditioner (polymer) was added. The parameters investigated included water application efficiency (Ea), uniformity distribution (Cu), storage efficiency (Es), plant growth attributes (plant height, stem diameter, number of branches/plant) crop yield, water consumption and water use efficiency (WUE). Tomato was taken as the indicator plant. Also, the drippers used were studied for their hydraulic characteristics and manufacturing coefficient of variation (Cv) and emission uniformity (Eu). The experimental design used was the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates: the main treatments being the irrigation systems in which three levels of watering were used 100%, 75%, 50% of crop water requirement (ETc), which was estimated by the FAO (1992) Cropwat computer programme. Duncan test at (P =603; 0.05) was used for checking variations among average values. Following are the most important results obtained: For the (GR) and (Euro-key) emitters the results were respectively: - Cv: 0.068 and 0.066. - Rate of discharge: q = 0.800H0.355and q = 0.785H0.364. - Eu: 94% and 94.67% and hence the emitters are rated excellent according to Al Amoud (1997). - In so far as the type of irrigation system is concerned, the effect was significant at (P =603; 0.01) for Ea, Es, plant height, stem diameter, number of branches/plant, yield, water consumption and water use efficiency (WUE), however no significant effect was recorded with respect to Cu. For the drip irrigation with emitters (GR & Euro-key), the surface irrigation on its own and the surface irrigation + polymer, the average results are respectively as follows: * Ea%: 86, 86, 47 and 48. * Cu%: 98, 98, 98 and 99. * Es%: 55, 55, 41 and 42. * Plant height (cm): 35, 35, 35 and 38. * Stem diameter (mm): 10, 10, 10 and 12. * Number of branches/plant: 10, 10, 9 and 13. * Yield (ton/ha): 24.8, 24.9, 24.1 and 31.4. * Water consumption (mm): 397, 397, 596 and 596. * WUE (kg/m3): 6.5, 6.5, 4.2 and 5.5. - The study shows that watering levels resulted in significant differences (P =603; 0.01) with respect to the parameters under investigation. Watering at 100%, 75% and 50% of crop water requirement (ETc) were respectively as follows: * Ea%: 60, 67 and 73. * Cu%: 98, 98 and 99. * Es%: 63, 49 and 33. * Yield (ton/ha): 30.6, 26.5 and 21.7. * Water consumption (mm): 662, 496 and 331. * WUE (kg/m3): 4.8, 5.5 and 6.8. * Whereas, for the other plant parameters there was a positive increase with the increase in watering level. - The study also revealed mathematical relations that can be used with confidence to predict plant growth attributes, yield and WUE based on the available parameters.
Description
2006
Keywords
Agricultural Engineering
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