Some Aspects of Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Atopic Dermatitis In School Children in Khartoum Province

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Marko, Peter
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A school survey enrolling 2176 pupils aged 6-13 years old in basic schools in Khartoum province was conducted during the period from October 2002 to February 2003 in 22 governmental randomly selected basic schools (out of 185 schools). The aim of the research was to study the prevalence, severity and triggering factors, of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis including the interrelations of the three atopic conditions. A detailed self administered adapted ISAAC questionnaire with supplemented questions was used. The parents and children at home completed the questionnaires. Physical examination and anthropometrics measurements were also recorded. The cumulative prevalence for asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema were 13.1%, 22.7%, and 8.1% respectively, with respective 12 months period prevalence of 10.8%, 22.1% and 7.1% respectively. The 12 months period prevalence for exercise induced wheeze, nighttime cough, and rhinoconjunctivitis were, 4.6%, 8.6% and 11.4% respectively. The prevalences of severe asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema were,14.1%, 3% and 23.1% respectively. e Family history of atopy and father smoking were significant associations for children with asthma. Asthma affected males more than females while the converse were true for allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema. Common triggering factors for asthma were respiratory infections, dusts and cold air. For allergic rhinitis, common triggers were temperature changes and dusts. Extreme weather changes and sweating were most common triggers for dermatitis. The commonest signs were pigeon chest (28.9%), oedematous nasal turbinate (72.5%) and accentuated palmar crease (24%) for asthma, rhinitis and dermatitis respectively. About 55.7% of children with asthma had allergic rhinitis, while 16.2% had atopic dermatitis. All three: asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis occurred in 12.3% of the children. Asthma is prevalent among Sudanese school children. There is a need for specialised asthma clinics for better management and health education of the patients. Further studies on asthma and other atopic conditions are recommended.
Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis,Atopic Dermatitis,allergic rhinitis