On The Toxicity of Dimethoate and Chlorpyrifos (Vitashield) On Albino Mice

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Abdel Karim, Afaf Abdel Rahim
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In this project, the toxic effects of the two pesticides Dimethoate 40EC and Vitashield (Chlorpyrifos) 40EC on the Swiss albino mice were investigated. The doses administered from these pesticides were 16mg/kg and 4mg/kg for dimethoate and 12mg/kg and 6mg/kg of Vitashield (chlorpyrifos), both were proportional to what is used in the field. Dimethoate was given by two different routes intraperitoneal and oral, while Vitashield was administered intraperitoneally only, for four months. A survey was also made to study the use and misuse of pesticides in the field in selected areas from Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Some conclusions were drawn concerning the toxicity of these pesticides, and the precautions to be taken when dealing with these dangerous chemicals. The study included the effects of the pesticides on tissues of selected organs i.e. liver, kidney, intestine and stomach. And some blood constituents i.e. RBC, WBC, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and blood plasma. The intensity of proteins and lipids in liver, kidney, intestine and stomach of albino mice were studied; beside the intensity of glycogen in the hepatocytes. The changes were analyzed statistically and presented in tables and graphs. Histopathological changes were presented as photographs. Histopathological changes observed in the liver showed various changes such as, hepatocytes pycnosis, cell death, cell rupture, vaculation, and high lymphocytic infiltration around the central vein. The kidney showed some changes in the cortex at the glomeruli as Bowman's capsule showed swollen cellular lining. The stomach and intestine showed high intensity of lymphocytic infiltration, some showed enlarged lymph nodes. Both pesticides showed haematological changes indicated by lower values for haemoglobin and HCT compared to the controls. Both pesticides did not affect the blood plasma protein. Vitashield had a clear effect on the RBCs while Dimethoate did not manifest any effect. The results showed some decrease in protein intensity and an increase in lipid intensity of the different organs, beside a marked depletion in glycogen intensity in liver of mice treated with both pesticides when compared with control. Mutagenic effects of these pesticides were carried out by two parameters, the induction of micronuclei in the bone marrow cells as a cytogenetic parameter and the sperm abnormality test as an indicator of gene mutation in germ cells. Results from the micronucleus test showed that the two pesticides are not effective in inducing cytogenetic damage (chromosome abnormality). However the sperm abnormality tests indicated a high statistical significance for the induction of head and tail abnormalities in almost all doses and at the two periods. This suggests that the two pesticides are active in inducing gene mutation
Toxicity,Dimethoate,Chlorpyrifos,Albino Mice