Urine Odour Change in Diagnosis of Camel Trypanosomiasis: A Verification of An Ethnoveterinary Practice.

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Adam El Hag Musa Darosa., Darosa
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In the light of the close supervision and inherited talent of determining the normal status of their camels, pastoralists diagnose camel trypanosomiasis (Guffar) by a characteristic odour change in infected camel urine. This practice is traditionally known and practiced by almost all camel-owing communities which they strongly believe in. Scientific verification of this diagnostic method was the basis of this study. The objective was to evaluate the efficiency of this method and correlate it with approved laboratory diagnostic methods including parasitological and clinico-pathological methods. It is also done to try and detect the compound or compounds that cause this characteristic odour change. A field survey and a laboratory experiment were conducted. Correlation between results obtained by urine odour and microscopic examination of the blood for presence of the parasite was done. Urine and blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis. Results obtained from both survey and experimentally collected data reflected high coincidences rate. This was 65% and experimentally it was 86%. Also a positive significant correlation (r = 0.5196, P < 0.0l) was found between the two methods. There were increased levels of creatinine (228.13±82.3 mg/l), urea (13.95±2.19 mg/I), albumin (8.18±1.89 g/l) ketone bodies (abundant) in the infected camels compared to the non-infected camels creatinine (191.3±52.51mg/I), urea (I0.32±0.77mg/l), albumin (6.02±0.77g/l), ketone bodies (nil), respectively. Two days post-treatment with antrycide, the parasitaemia, the characteristic urine odour and ketone bodies completely disappeared. The values other than those did not change at the same rate and remained unchanged for a while. The coincidence of disappearance of the parasite, the ketone bodies may suggest that ketone is one of the major causes of urine odour change during infection. Other ingredients should not be excluded, at this stage and their contribution to urine odour change should be elucidated in further studies.
Urine Odour Change in Diagnosis of Camel Trypanosomiasis: A Verification of An Ethnoveterinary Practice