Effects of Static Magnetic Field Exposure on Serum Electrolytes and Tissues Histology in Albino Rats

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Abd Elkreem, Saida
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Background: Due to the recent developments in electronic technologies, daily exposure to strong static magnetic fields (SMF) is increasing. In particular is the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for medical diagnoses. The intensity of SMF used at MRI due to development of MRI systems is increasing. Such strong-SMF exposure systems have great potential to improve medical and research applications. The hitherto studies indicated that SMF causes changes in electrolytes level and tissues histology, for that we conducted this study. Objectives: This experimental study aims to evaluate the effects of repetitive exposure to SMF on serum Na+, K+, and Ca++ concentrations, and on some tissues (brain, liver, spleen, kidney, lung, pancreas, intestine, muscle) histology in rats. Methods: Fifty-five Albino rats were included in this study classified to 4 groups that involved 4 different protocols of exposure to SMF, and a control group. The experimental plan was based on chest X-ray followup protocol in pneumonia, pleural effusion and consolidation. In this protocol, the subject will be exposed to chest X-ray image on day 1, 3 and 7, then after 4 weeks from day 7. As MRI is considered to be a safe procedure compared to X-ray the regiment can use MRI instead of X-ray. Blood samples were obtained from retro orbital venous sinus on day 1, 3, 7, and after 4 weeks from day 7 after exposing the rats to SMF (1.5 T) for 1 hour , and the level of Na+, K+, and Ca++ were measured. After the experiment was completed, the rats were sacrificed and vital organs were dissected out and histologically studied. Results: The results showed that there was an increase in serum K+ concentration, and a decrease in serum Na+ concentration in all groups. Serum Ca++ level fluctuated with a decrease in the groups of day 1, and after 4 weeks from day 7 of exposure, and an increase in the group of day 3. The histology of the vital organs of rats exposed to SMF showed necrosis, hemorrhage, and congestion of liver cells. Congestion, and 12 hemorrhage in renal medulla and cortex, and congestion, hemorrhage and emphysema in lungs were observed. In addition, congestion and sloughing of epithelial villi in intestine, congestion and hemorrhage in spleen were observed also. Moreover, vaculolation, and degeneration of brain cells, congestion and degeneration of muscle fiber, and degeneration of pancreas. Conclusion: The obtained results indicated that MRI technique is potentially hazardous and affects electrolytes and some vital organs in experimental Albino rats. However, the effects on human have not yet been tested.
Static, Magnetic, Field, Exposure, Serum, Electrolytes,Tissues, Histology, Albino, Rats