Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle in Khartoum State

No Thumbnail Available
Elsadig, Selma
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
University of Khartoum
Dairy farming is flourishing in Khartoum State, but brucellosis harmpers efforts of investors in the sector. This study was designed to study factors responsible for the spread of the disease in the state, evaluate the diagnostic tests used for its diagnosis and suggest control measure. In this study 1417 samples consisted of 1115 serum, 300 milk samples and two vaginal discharges were collected from 46 dairy farms, five farms in Omdrman, 20 in Khartoum, 19 in Khartoum North (Khartoum State) and two in Elbagir in Elgazera State. These farms were from 11 different localities in Khartoum State and the two farms in Elgazeira State were in one locality. The type of cattle examined were mainly crosses between Foreign and local Kenana or Botana types. Each farm contained between 10-50 cows with the exception of one farm in El Bagair which contained over 1000 cattle. The age of cattle ranged between 1-8 years. The farms had poor hygienic conditions, lacked proper veterinary supervision, had no quarantine measures for sick or aborting animals, no records and vaccination was not practiced except in one farm in Elbagir. With the aid of a questionnaire information obtained showed that there were many clinical conditions suggestive of the disease, such as abortions, stillbirths and infertility. Samples VII were collected from 1261 females and 156 male cattle in the above mentioned farms. Different tests were used for the examination of samples. They included Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) using locally prepared antigen and antigen imported form U.K, indirect Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA), competitive Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA), Milk Ring Test (MRT), milk Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (mELISA) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT). Of the 46 farms visited 32 (68%) had evidence of brucellosis. Of 1417 samples collected from animals in different farms 208 (15%) were positive for brucellosis. Out of the 1115 serum samples tested using RBPT employing antigen prepared locally 133 (12%) were positive for the test. The same results were obtained when the samples were reexamined by the RBPT using antigen imported from Veterinary Labororatories Agency VLA, United Kingdom (U.K). The number of positive samples increased to 173 (15%) when the same samples were reexamined by iELISA .The samples which were positive in RBPT were rexamined using cELISA and four samples were found negative. All samples which had been positive in RBPT were reexamined by SAT to measure their antibody levels in international units (i.u). It was found that the minimum level was 31 i.u. and maximum was 12200i.u. VIII Out of 300 milk samples examined by MRT, 34 (11%) samples were positive. One hundred and sixty random milk samples were reexamined by mELISA and the results agreed with those of the MRT. Vaginal discharges from two aborted cows were cultured on potato agar and stained with Gram and modified Zihel Neelsen for Brucella, one sample yielded Brucella abortus organism. The isolate was identified as B. abortus biovar1. The prevalence rate of Brucellosis in Khartoum State was high and this may be attributed to the system of animal husbandry and poorly hygienic measures. The disease can be controlled by raising awareness of animal breeder about the disease, adoption of better hygienic measures, use of proper diagnostic methods and regular vaccination of cattle and other species in contact. On the success of control measures the policy of elimination of diseased animals by stamping out may be considered later.
99 Pages
Bovine brucellosis,Milk Ring Test,Rose bengal plate test;Classification ;typing of genus brucella ;Resistance and susrvival properties;Modes infection and transmission of brucellosis;Bacteriological diagnosis;Milk Ring Test