Study of the Pathogenicty of Experimental Borrelia Anserina Infection in Chickens

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Mahmmed Abdou Ginawi, Ginawi
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The pathogenicity of experimental Borrelia anserina infection was studied and compared in White Leghorn and indigenous Baladi fowls. Both breeds were kept under tick-proof pens. Birds of different age groups were inoculated intravenously with infected blood and only one virulent strain of B. anserina was used throughout. White Leghorn fowls were found more susceptible to infection than Baladi ones. Likewise, young chickens of both breeds appeared to be more vulnerable to the disease than the adult ones. The clinical signs recorded included lethargy, high temperature, ruffled feathers, diarrhoea and isolation from the rest of the flock; those were particularly marked in birds of the White Leghorn breed and were much severer in young birds of both breeds. Similarly, mortality rate was higher in the White Leghorn fowls and in young chickens. These observations were thoroughly discussed. The haematological findings indicated development of anaemia in infected birds. The anaemia appeared to be normocytic, normochromic, macrocytic normochromic and microcytic normochromic in adult birds of both breeds, young Baladi and young White Leghorn, respectively. A marked leucocytosis was observed in most of the infected birds. Increased lymphocytes at the expense of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed in White Leghorn young birds with slight change in Baladi. An increase in total serum proteins in old infected birds was observed, with a decrease in albumen in young birds. Globulin concentrations increased in young but decreased in old birds. There was also a decrease in serum alkaline phosphate with an increase in serum acid phosphate activity. The post-motem findings included large mottled spleen, large congested liver, haemorrhagic caecal tonsils, pale large kidneys, hypertrophied heart, hyperaemic and oedematous lungs and congested brain. Histopathological changes were marked in the spleen than liver, kidneys, intestines, lungs, heart and brain in order of severity. Lesions in the spleen were mainly necrosis, proliferation of epithelial cells and infiltration of lymphoid cells. Histochemically, haemosiderin was demonstrable in spleen, liver, kidneys and intestines. Glycogen disappeared from the liver by the 4th day of infection. B. anserina remained viable in blood, plasma and serum at 4oC for 5 weeks and at –70oC for 8 weeks with or without addition of glycerol but failed to survive at –20oC. The above findings were discussed in relations to other observations reported by previous workers. A more elaborate research is felt necessary to elucidate unequivocally certain channels of the study that have been pin-pointed here.
Study of the Pathogenicty of Experimental Borrelia Anserina Infection in Chickens.