Influence of Gamma-Irradiation on the Physico-Chemical Properties of the tow Sudanese Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars

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Ibrahim, Enas Ibrahim Elfadel
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Studies were carried out on the effect of gamma irradiation on physico-chemical properties and food quality of two Sudanese wheat cultivars as well as to investigate its impact on the insect infestation. Two local cultivars: Debaira and Sasaraib were treated with three doses of radiation 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 KGY. Proximate composition was carried out for the two wheat cultivars (72%extraction rate), sedimentation value, falling number value, gluten quality and quantity, farinograph characteristics and extensograph characteristics were investigated for irradiated and non-irradiated wheat flour, also; baking quality was determined for bread (loaf) made from the two cultivars irradiated and non-irradiated. Results indicated significant difference in the quality tests among the flours and bread made from the two cultivars. The two cultivars were found to contain low falling number (Falling number) (593.33 and 635 sec), sedimentation value (30.33 and 25.67 cm3), water absorption (61.4 and 61.9%), specific loaf volume (2.61 and 2.52 cm3/g) and extensibility (174 and 173 mm), of Debaira and Sasaraib respectively. Treatment of gamma irradiation of the two wheat cultivars significantly affected the quality tests with exception of sedimentation value. For both cultivars irradiation treatment increased alph-amylase activity, specific loaf volume and water absorption, also decrease extensibility, however there were increase in resistance values for Debaira whereas Sasaraib showed no consistent pattern. The values changed as follows: (593.33 - 412 sec) and (635 - 417 sec), (2.61 - 2.94 cm3/g) and (2.52 - 3.13 cm3/g), (61.4 - 67%) and (61.9-68 %), (174-159 mm) and (173-136 mm), (232 – 370 cm) respectively. Generally, Debeira cultivar indicated better bread making quality as compared with Sasaraib cultivar. The results from storage up to 7months have shown that irradiation treatment at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 KGY were effective as a disinfestations treatment.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
University of khartoum