The Histology of the Submandibular Gland in the Sudanese

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Mahmoud,Hagir A. Rahman
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Introduction: The submandibular gland is a mixed salivary gland that contributes the majority of saliva secreted into the mouth. Sudan is a hot tropical country. As an adaptive response to this hot environment, it is assumed that this gland in the Sudanese could be entirely serous or has little mucous cells compared to other nations. Objective: To study the normal submandibular gland histology in the Sudanese people, and to compare it with that of other nations. Material and methods: twenty normal submandibular salivary glands were obtained as a part of radical neck dissection performed at Khartoum Teaching Dental Hospital. The morphology of the submandibular gland was studied using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. The gland volume was obtained by using the water displacement technique. The length, width, and thickness of the gland were measured. For histological analysis, the sections were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin for routine processing. Ten Serial sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin stain. A simple point-counting method was used and the volume fractions of various constituents of individual glands were determined. V Results: The results showed that the average submandibular gland measures were 4.1 cm in length, 3.1 cm in width, 1.1 cm in thickness, and 15.9 cm3 in volume. The mean of the proportional volume of total acinar cells from total points of the gland was 56%. That of the duct was 9.52%, and the mean of the proportional volume of stroma from total glandular points was 34.5%. The mean of the proportional volume of the serous acini from the total acinar cells was 97.5%, and that of the mucous acini was 2.5%. There were no differences in the distribution of serous and mucous acini between the central and peripheral sections. Conclusion: It is concluded that in the Sudanese, the volume of the serous acinar cell constitute 97.5% of the total acinar cell volume which is much higher than the 92,2% volume reported by Scott from England. The study provides an average of normal gland dimensions which is important to ensure the proper diagnosis of salivary gland diseases. The differences in volumes between this and other studies could be an adaptive form of hypertrophy of the gland to compensate for the hot environment.
Histology, Submandibular, Gland,