A Co-Operative Approach To The Housing Problem In The Sudan

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Salah Eldin Mahmoud, Osman
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The dissertation consists of three sections consequently tackle:- -. The nature and magnitude of the housing problem in Sudan - The role of the co-operative housing system in solving the urban housing problems - The formation and workabi1ity of the co-operative system within the housing administration system of Sudan. Every section consists of two chapters, ended with an implied introduction to the next section. The housing problem in Sudan is summarized in the shortage of the housing units, and the non--adequacy or nonavai1abi1ity of services and basic infrastructures. The annual needs of housing units and services was estimated for Khartoum, assuming to solve the housing problem within a ten-year plan 1985 – 95”, considering both the fresh needs and the accumulated was estimated to be 34,000 housing units annually plus 38.25 million pounds for services. The problem of financing this plan is thought to be a major problem since almost all the previous plans were considered failures because of the non-adequacy of finance, the dependence on the government to finance the housing plans was proved to be impossible specially in the prevailing economic difficulties , moreover the plan estimated an annua1 rate of 5% of the national income to solve the housing problem of Khartoum, and was obviously hopeless to wait for the government to conserve this amount of finance in a time that mottos of decentralization balanced regional growth and equal distribution of national wealth are dominant. Then a comparison between the modes of supplying housing in the contemporary housing policy, which are the site and services, popular housing investment housing and the illegal housing, was held giving five merits to the popular housing projects against one, but major ,merit to the site and services pertaining the system of finance . From the comparison and from the history of the housing problem in Sudan, it was clear that all these modes failed to solve the housing problem or even alleviate it. financing. The third mode, the investment housing have no legal restraints to guarantee its input to increase the housing stock and adjust its contiguity to the low income groups. Lastly it was obviously not practical to depend on the illegal mode to solve housing problem. The conclusion of this comparison recommended the necessity to amalgamate all the merits of the different modes in one system which was suggested to be the co-operative system. One of the objectives of people joining housing co-operatives is to enable members to pool together their meager resources to be able to solve their problems more effectively than they would as separate individuals, beside that the adjustable rate of density can enable a rational exploitation of the available resources and minimize the cost of service, moreover the system can be considered as an input of design on the macro level, beside the possibility of achievement of a town unity and urban development control. Section two of this dissertation negotiates the role of the co-operative system in solving the urban housing problem, beginning with the international experience by establishing the experience of some selected countries like Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Tanzania, Britian , Czecoslovakia and Chile. The conclusions of this experience, their recommendations and causes of fai1ure, fi1tered by the socio- economic factors of Sudan, were put as indices to achieve efficient performance of the co-operative system in Sudan. The last section expatiate on the formation of the Housing co-operatives and the possibility of introducing this system within the existing administrative system, where it suggested to initiate a housing co-operative administration subordinated by the Housing Department to take responsibility of supervising the co-operatives performance. Stage check-point technique is introduced in formation and workability of the co-operatives system so that deliberate studies and precise measurements of the success of the housing co- operatives can be achieved before much money and effort were spent in this activity, also so as not to expose the newly born system to an early failure rather than preventing the system from being just an access to acquire land.
A Co-Operative, Approach , Housing Problem , Sudan.