Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oils Of Cymbopogon nervatus and Cuminum cyminum

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Abu Shama, Muna Faisal Tag Eldin
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The antifungal activity of eight essential oils, namely: Cyperus rotandus, Baswellia papyrifera, Eucalyptus camaldalensis, Cymbopogon schoenanathu, Citrus paradises, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ocimum basilicum and Cuminim cyminum was investigated using Agar Well Diffusion Assay on (SDA) medium. Two essential oils showed relatively high antifungal activity on the hyphal growth of Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. These are C. nervatus essential oil of the aerial part and C. cyminum fruit’s essential oil. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of the above mentioned essential oils was investigated using Agar Well Diffusion Method and Agar Dilution Method on (PDA). Test organisms used were A. niger, A. flavus, A. spp, C. albicans and Fusarium oxysporum. The 1:100 v/v dilutions of essential oil C. nervatus showed its maximum antifungal effect on C. albicans and F. oxysporum with average inhibition zones of 20 mm and 19 mm respectively. On the other hand, the antifungal effect of C. cyminum essential oil with dilution (1:100 v/v) was high against A. niger and C. albicans with inhibition zones 18 mm for each, followed by F. oxysporum with inhibition zone of 14 mm. Also the antibacterial effect of the two essential oils was studied using Agar Well Diffusion Method in Nutrient Agar. The test organisms used for the study were Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The dilution 1:100 v/v of C. nervatus essential oil showed activity on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zones 18 mm, 15 mm and 13 mm respectively. The antibacterial effect of C. cyminum essential oil (1:100 v/v) was notable against S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumonia with inhibition zones 16 mm, 16 mm and 15 mm respectively. Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of the essential oil of C. nervatus was investigated using Serial Dilution Method in (SDB), the results showed that dilution 1: 40,000 v/v completely inhibited the growth of A. niger, C. albicans and F. oxysporum. The C. nervatus essential oil’s fractions obtained by Column Chromatographies were investigated for their antifungal activity using Disc Diffusion Method on PDA. Results revealed high activity of the ether and the benzene fractions when compared to same concentrations of Nystatin and Biofonazole as standards for antifungal activity. The two oil fractions showed high activity on A. niger and C. albicans cultures with inhibition zones (43 and 30 mm) and (40 and 30 mm) respectively. The aflatoxins production by A. flavus was also studied. The effect of different concentrations of the essential oil of C. nervatus on the toxins was analyzed by HPLC. Results showed reducing effect when compared to standards. The main chemical constituents of the essential oil of C. nervatus were investigated by (GC-MS). The volatile oil composed mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes, where Trans-p-Mentha-1(7), 8-dien-2-ol (21.25%), Cycloheptane, 1,3,5-tris Methylene (16.08%), Cis-p-Mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (9.83%) were the major components. The main chemical components of the essential oil of C. cyminum were 2-Caren-10-Al (29.64%), Benzaldehyde,4-1-methyethyl (16.58%) and 2-J-Pinene (12.06%). The notable antifungal effect of the essential oil of C. nervatus on pathogenic organisms, compared to C. cyminum essential oil is proved by Diffusion and Dilution Assays. The use of C .nervatus essential oil as a fungicide in agricultural schemes as well as in storage of commodities is recommended
Investigation , Antimicrobial Activity, Essential, Cymbopogon nervatus,Cuminum cyminum