Epidemiological Investigation of Schistosomiasis

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Sahar Hamdi, Ebrahim
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ABSTRACT The objective of this study to assess the epidemiological situation of Bilharzia among 687 Khalwas' students "Khalwa Heran" from 18 Khalaws in Khartoum State, and to frame the role of some socioeconomic factors, including the motility and the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of the students, influencing transmission pressure of Bilharzia. In fact, 687 Khalwas' students from 18 Khalwa in Khartoum State (El Daly, Khatim El Anbiyaa, El Sheikh Hassan Wad Hasouna, El Sheikh Wad Badur, El Shelikha and El Barra’a Ibn Aazeb) in Sharg El Neel, while El Salmaneia in Omdurman.The selected Khalwas of Khartoum: El Sheikh Abd El Gader Wad Um Marioum, El Remaila, Wad El Agali, El Faroug, El Sheikh El Nazeir and El Tireaa, while those from Bahry; El Sagay, Ibn Omer, El Khogalab, El Mugama’a El Islami and Abu Alamaa. The selected candidates were microscopically investigated for Bilharzia by providing urine and faecal samples, where urine samples were examined by the conventional simple centrifugation method and stool samples were examined by the locally developed modified Kato technique. A pres-tested questionnaire was conducted to all selected students for obtaining the socioeconomic background related to the transmission of the disease. Several variables that reflected the socioeconomic aspect and the candidates' way of life were strongly associated with the prevalence and intensity of infection e.g. age-class, ethnicity, geographic-origin, previous residence, displacement, water-contact activities, awareness and history of infection. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium was 12.7% and the overall excreted eggs were 26.79 per 10 ml of urine, while the overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 5.5% and the excreted eggs 180.26 per gram of faeces. Different Khalwas significantly varied in the infection parameters, the highest infection rate in El Daly (40.9%), while the highest intensity in El Remaila, (224.8epg). As for intestinal Bilharziasis, the highest prevalence found in El Sheikh Abd El Gader Wad Om Marioum (20.6%), while the highest worm burden also in El Remaila (983.9epg). The infection parameters were significantly peaked at the age-class (5 - 20) years, while infection parameters varied significantly between students displaced from different areas, being highest among those from White Nile, Kordofan Northern, Gezira and Blue Nile States. Almost two-thirds of the investigated student used to practice some sort of water-contact activities in the surrounding waterbodies, in original and transitional places as well as in Khartoum State. More than four-fifth of the investigated candidates were ignorant, 82%, for Bilharzia treatment. Factors like their history of infection, ignorance, important water-contact activities, accessibility to latrines and intermittent water-supply problems; were correlated to the obtained infection parameters. Based on the findings, an array of practical control measures were highly advocated and recommended, including chemotherapy, focal snail control, provision of clean adequate water-supply, sanitation improvement via religious messages, especially designed health education and community participation programs.
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Epidemiological Investigation of Schistosomiasis