Milk Utilization in the White Nile Area: A Case Study

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Date
2015-06-22
Authors
Rajaa Mustafa Mohamed, Ahmed
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Publisher
UOFK
Abstract
This investigation was designed to study the systems of husbandry in the White Nile area, to evaluate the potentiality of production and utilization of milk, to study the systems of cheese manufacture and to evaluate the cost of cheese production under mobile and resident factories. A survey was conducted during the period of 1994-1995 using a formal questionnaire, group discussions and the researcher's observations. Two hundred and forty household respondents were interviewed as follows: 100 nomads, 100 residents and 40 semi-nomads. Ten mobile and 15 resident cheese factories were chosen in Kosti, Tendelti and Ed Dueim areas. The data were statistically analyzed using completely randomized design and correlation tests. The effects of settlement and tribe on milk production and utilization were obtained. It was found that settlement significantly affected the herd structure (P<0.01), the greatest number of adult cows being owned by nomads, while the smallest number was owned by residents. Lactation period was significantly (P<0.05) affected by settlement, with period being longer in nomads' cows and shorter in semi-nomads' cows. Dry period was longer among residents' cows and shorter among semi-nomads' cows. Age at first calving was significantly (P<0.0l) affected by settlement, the highest age being in cows owned by residents and lowest in cows owned by semi-nomads. Calving interval showed significant variation (P<0.0l) between settlements. The calving interval was longer in cows of semi-nomads and shorter in cows of residents. However, settlement did not significantly affect the dry period (P>0.05). Settlement significantly (P< 0.0l) affected milk yield. The highest yield was produced by cows owned by nomads while the lowest yield was obtained by cows owned by residents. Tribe showed no significant (P>0.05) effect on herd structure and lactation period. The tribe significantly affected the age at first calving and dry period (P<0.0l) calving interval (P<0.05) and daily milk yield (P<0.00l) Positive correlations were obtained between the tribe and milk selling (+0.37) and settlement and purpose for cattle rearing (+0.85). Positive correlations were obtained between cheese yield and amount of rennet (+0.37), salt content (+0.31) and time for whey drainage (+0.41). However, negative correlations were obtained between cheese yield and amount of milk (-0.07) and coagulation time (-0.8). Positive correlations were obtained between total cost of production of 1 kg cheese and cost of milk (+0.96), cost of rennet (+0.52), cost of salt (+0.29) and cost of labor (+0.12), while negative correlations were obtained between total cost and building cost (-0.004) and packaging cost (-0.26). Factory type, area of manufacture and the educational level of labor showed no significant effect (P>0.05) on cheese yield, cost and price.
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Keywords
Milk Utilization,White Nile Area
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