Public Knowledge Attitude And Behaviour Regarding Antibiotics Use In Animals In Khartoum State

No Thumbnail Available
Baday,Omar Mohamed Saleh
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
University of Khartoum
This Ph.D thesis is considered as an extension to the author’s M.Sc thesis “Performance promotion and efficiency improvement in Dr. Sharif Power Station”, which was presented in University of Khartoum in 1997. The M.Sc thesis covered the period from 1994 to 1996, when most of the technical problems appeared in Dr. Sharif Power Station, specially after the commercial run of Phase II Units Nos 3 & 4. The author dealt with scientific methods to solve the power station standing problems in order to promote the deteriorated performance and to raise the already degraded efficiency. The M.Sc thesis showed all the technical and managerial studies that had been carried out by the author in this regard. Those studies are now shown briefly in chapter 1 ‘Introduction” of this Ph.D thesis. The title of the Ph.D thesis is “ Technical and Managerial Development for raising efficiency in Dr. Sharif Power Station”. While the M.Sc thesis dealt with Remedial studies for promoting the performance, and hence improving the efficiency, the Ph.D thesis is now dealing with development studies for raising the efficiency to higher levels through using modern sophisticated technologies in power generation. The author, in order to fulfill the research objectives stated at the end of chapter 1, has divided his research into four main studies and many subordinate studies, which are all shown under seven chapters, in addition to an appendix covering one technical study been done by the author. At the beginning of each chapter a short summary is written as an introduction to it. The first main field of study is dealing with conversion of the existing gas turbines’ simple cycles in Dr. Sharif Power Station to combined cycle. This main study represents the most important part of this research. It starts with explaining the gas-steam turbines combined (Hybrid) cycle. It shows the power station GTs data specification. Then it describes in detail the Burmeister & Wain Scandinavian Contractor (BWSC) offer to NEC to convert KNPS simple cycle gas turbines to combined cycle. It shows the parts of the project works to be done by BWSC and by NEC, with all the field research carried out in Dr. Sharif power station (formerly KNPS) to modify and adapt BWSC offer in accordance to the power station technical data. This mainly covers the need for supplementary firing, for enough feed water, for enough cooling water and for enough cooling of the cooling water. A sub-study for NOx reduction facility is also done. The author shows that an estimation has been done to the proposed combined cycle overall efficiency by simulation of modules, where genuine data were fed to a computerized program prepared by the author to identify the raise in efficiency from the simple cycle to the Combined Cycle. A conclusion to the first study shows the advantages of the combined cycle power generation, and a related sub-study has been prepared for proving reliability, availability and performance test of combined cycle. The second field of study is dealing with exploitation of Sudan refined fuel oil in Dr. Sharif power station. It is divided into the following parts or sub-studies: Brief history of petroleum survey, discovery and production in the Sudan, type of Sudan crude oils according to international standards, refineries functionalism and productivity, specifications of produced fuel oil compared to international specifications, and evaluation of refined fuel oil usage in the power station. A 6 complete field research has been carried out in Dr. Sharif power station covering the exploitation of Al Obeid refinery fuel oil stating all problems and remedies arose from some differences in specifications, but which are in general much less than the first problems arose from Abu Jabra refinery fuel oil. The third field of study, is dealing with usage of new technologies in Dr. Sharif power station for raising the efficiency. The author in this chapter has got use of his 20 years experience in power generation in the Arabian Gulf Countries, dealing with modern sophisticated technologies. His aim is to introduce them to engineers and planners to use them for development of power generation in the Sudan. Five sophisticated technologies are being field studied with comparison results and are all shown in details as: Gas turbine air inlet chillers, steam turbine air-cooled condenser, steam turbine steam re-heating, steam turbine condensate polishing, and steam turbine unit with flue gas electrostatic precipitator. The advantages of each of these modern sophisticated technologies are included at the end of each field study of them accordingly. The fourth field of study is dealing with development of power station management. The study stresses on the role of the power station manager, the objectives he has to fulfill and the ways of leadership he has to adopt. The objectives are mostly to reduce costs, to keep good housekeeping, to improve plant performance, to develop the plant, to save money as a result of above techniques and safety techniques. The ways of leadership could be through motivation, communication, interpersonal skills, group dynamics and teamwork, and through innovation and planned change. A part of the fourth study also deals with the warehouse management, where its present situation is shown, then a special sub-study has been carried out for upgrading it to international standard of centralization of supplies department to include in its organization all of the purchasing, stock, and warehouse managements. The final chapter is divided into discussion, conclusion and recommendation for future work. In discussion the author explains all his contributions in the study works he did in this research. In conclusion the author shows that the objectives of this research have all been fulfilled. In the recommendation for future work the author points out that it remains to carry out revised studies in power planning, covering the power market survey, power forecast for annual demand growth, short-term and longterm power plans, correlation of hydro and thermal power generations, correlation of NEC with Independent Power Plants (IPP) of refineries, cement and sugar factories for buying their surplus generated power, privatization in power generation and role of investments in power generation through the Build, Own and Operate for agreed Time (BOOT) regime after breaking electricity monopoly of NEC, and lastly endeavor to reduce cost of generated power by using sophisticated power technologies.
156 Pages
power station;raw condensate analysis;HFO sampling;boiler water;heat rate;saudi riyal