Technical Efficiency of Wheat Production in the Central Gezira Scheme

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Uthayla Abdel Alrazig Albashir, Albashir
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This study was carried out in the Gezira Scheme for one season (2007/08). The main objective of the study was to measure the technical efficiency of producing wheat, to determine the main factors behind technical inefficiency and to identify the socio-economic factors that affect the level of efficiency of farmers. Wheat yield in the Gezira Scheme fluctuated from season to season. Production could be increased by increasing technical efficiency using the same available technology. The study used primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire for 60 farmers, and it covered the socioeconomics characteristics of farmers and the different inputs quantities used in agricultural production. Secondary data were collected from different sources, including the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests and various documents, records, books, periodicals, reports and internet. The stochastic production frontier analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency of producing wheat in the scheme and to determine the factors behind inefficiency of farmers such as gender, age, educational level, marital status and family size. Descriptive statistics were also used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of farmers in relation to efficiency level. The results showed that most of the estimated β co-efficient of the stochastic frontier model for wheat production are significant and have the expected signs. The mean technical efficiency of farmers was estimated as 63%. This means that the farmers can increase their output by 37% through better use of the available resources if the farmers are technically efficient. The type of owner, number of insufficient irrigations and marital status were the most important socio-economic factors in explaining technical inefficiency in the Gezira Scheme. To improve technical efficiency for wheat production in the area, the study recommended paying more attention to farmers' training, and land preparation and irrigation must be applied at optimum timing. Provision of finance and use of wheat improved varieties are a necessary for more efficient wheat production in the Gezira scheme.
Technical Efficiency of Wheat Production in the Central Gezira Scheme