Antimutagens in Some Sudanese Foods of Plant Origin

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Hamid, Rania Mohamed Osman
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University of Khartoum
Background: Foods of plants origin have been fundamental part of human dietary system. Due to their high nutritional value as sources of micronutrients there has been an increase interest in discovering their antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic constituents. Such constituents are found in almost all categories of food, fruits and vegetables. Mutagenic and carcinogenic agents are ubiquitous in the human environment, and it seems impossible to eliminate all of them. Moreover, several well-known mutagenic risk factors are closely connected with a modern lifestyle, and their entire eradication appears to be very burdensome, even unattainable. Therefore, a need to reduce genotoxic effects of mutagenic and carcinogenic factors by the regular intake of antimutagenic agents is existing. Detection of antimutagenic activity of natural occurring substances of plant origin and dietary components is an active study area that still needs more explorations. Methodology: A controlled laboratory-based descriptive and observational study was carried out to assess the antimutagenic effects of commonly used Sudanese foods of plant origin. This study was conducted at Khartoum city in the period from July 2009 to September 2012. After a pilot survey of Khartoum vegetable and fruit markets, twenty one varieties of food of plant-origin were tested for antimutagenicty using RAPD-PCR carried out for E. coli genetic material. The plants varieties were Radish (Raphanus Sativus), roquette (Eurica Sativa), beets (Beata Vulgaris), Carrot (Daucus carota), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Snak melon (Cucumis melo), Cuccumber (Cucumis sativus), pepper (Capsicum annuum). Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), Onion (Allium cepa), Green onion (Allium wakegi), Grapefruit (Citrus.Paradisi), Orange (Citrus.Sinensis), Watermelon (Citrullus.Lanatus), Melon (Cucumis melo L), Banana (Musa acuminate), Gudeim (Grewia tenax), Lalob (Balanites aegyptiaca), Ardab (Tamarindus indica Linn), karkade (Roselle) (Hibiscus sabdariffa),Gongolase(Baobab) (Adansonia digitata). The food plants were purchased from central markets of Khartoum and Khartoum–North. Three types of extracts were prepared for each plant variety; Methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts. Four models for mutagenicity assays were designed and used as detailed; Model one: Positive control for mutation of E. coli experiments by mutation agent (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo [4, 5-f] quinoline (IQ)), Model two: positive control experiments for mutation-suppression of E. coli IQ mutated cells by using pure, HPLC grade chlorophyllin as an antimutagenic. Model three: experiments for E. coli cells mutation-suppression by adding IQ mutation agent and food plant extracts in produced by different methods of extraction and concentrations of 2, 1.5, 1, 0.5mg per culture. Model four: negative control experiments in which E. coli cells were tested RAPD -PCR for any mutagens or antimutagens. The target in all experiments was the visual change in band patterns in each model. i.e. DNA was extracted from cultures and marked changes were observed in RAPD profiles (disappearance and/or appearance of bands in comparison with control. Results: Amplification products showed strong, moderate, and weak or no response as antimutagenic in extracts tested. Detection of antimutagenicity: Detection of mutagenicity was defined by loss or addition of bands compared with the control. Only reproducible and clear amplification bands were scored. The marked changes observed in RAPD profiles (disappearance and/or appearance of bands in comparison with control) were evaluated. Data were divided into four classes, depending on the present and absent of antimutagen: Strong = Identical to antimutagenic. Moderate = largely similar to antimutagenic. Weak = missed band or changes the position. No response = No appearance of band. n.e. = Insufficient extract available for testing. The methanol extracts showed the highest antimutagenic effects. Extracts of almost all the food plants studied i.e. Carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beata vulgaris), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pepper (Capsicum annuum), onion (Allium cepa), banana (Musa acuminata), grape fruit (Citrus.paradisi), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and ardab (Tamarindus indica linn) showed strong antimutagenic activity at high concentrations (2, 1.5mg). Regarding the enquiry concerning with the practical meaning of the concentrations used in this study to real life consumption of these food items: This study highlights adequacy and deficiency of antimugen components in Sudanese food of plant origin. Such data can be used for interpreting possibilities of using dietary components as a protection means against mutation in genetic materials. The study shows clearly the minimum amounts of food that express antimutagenic effects. However to know exactly how much to consume from each food item further studies are needed. Such studies should take into account the consumption patterns of each food item in addition to anthropogenic and environmental factors and other parameters. Unfortunately, these requirements are out of the scope and objectives of this study. The ethyl acetate extracts of Cuccumber (Cucumis sativus), radish (Raphanus sativus), and ardab (Tamarindus indica linn) had strong antimutagenic activity. The petroleum ether reaction showed the lowest antimutagenic activity from the food plants. Conclusion: This study confirms the possibility that some of the food of plants origin could have antimutagenic effects. It also demonstrates the effectiveness of using RAPD-PCR of E.coli DNA as an effective tool to detect mutagenic and antimutagenic behaviour of plant food extracts in culture.
Antimutagens, Sudanese Foods, Plant Origin