Biochemical, Toxicological and Pharmacological Aspects of Paraphenylenediamine (Hair Dye) Poisonong

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Saad, H. A
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University of Khartoum
The systemic toxicity of PPD was investigated in Brown hisex chicks and Albino wisterrats, at different concentration through different routes of administration. PPD was introduced to chicks at doses 140, 105, 70 and 35 mg/kg bw. While rats received70,35, and 17.5 mg/kg bw of PPD. Death occur at doses 105, 140, mg/kg bw. in chicks and at doses 35 mg/kg bw in rats within 4 and 3 h respectively. Biochemical changesaccompanied PPD exposure include· elevated level in the activities of enzymes GOT,GPT, ALP, CPK, LDH and aldolase. In addition the concentrations of urea, uric acid, creatinine were elevated with marked reduction in total proteins level. Alterations in gulcose, cholesterol, K, Mg and Ca were also observed. Haemotological changes indicafe. the occurrence of anaemia. Lesions were seen in liver, kidney, cardiac and skeletalmuscles. There was clear alteration of hepatorenal and cardiac functions. Toxic effects of single sublethal dose of PPD was maximum at 24 h in rats and 72 h in chicks, subsequently changes approached normal values, but complete recovery wasnot attained up to 120 h after administration of PPD. Chronic administration of PPD in both species was associated with biochemical and histopathological changes that indicate clear dysfunction of liver and kidney. Haematological changes showed obvious anaemia. PPD was not detected in liver, kidney and heart. This may be due to the biotransformation of PPD to metabolites in the examined tissues. The pharmacology of PPD was investigated in a number of isolated preparations, frog rectus abdominus, rat uterus, rabbit aortic strip, rat stomach strip, rat ascending colon and rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. In lower doses PPD revealed neither agonistic nor antagonistic effect in these tissues. However in large doses the sensitivity of tissues to stimulant and relavant drugs was lost. This is most propably due to necrotic effect of PPD. In perfused rabbit the addition of PPD increased muscle contractility. Thiseffect was blocked by pre-addition of the antihistamine (chloropheniramine). The incubation of guinea-pig lung chops produced a substance(s) that contracr guinea-pig ileum. This stimulant effect was blocked by pre-addition of chloropheniramine. This indicates that PPD may release a histamine like substance from guinea-pig IUl:6 chops .
The systemic toxicity of PPD, GOT,GPT, ALP, CPK, LDH and aldolase, urea, uric acid, creatinine
Saad, H. A. (1996). Biochemical, Toxicological and Pharmacological Aspects of Paraphenylenediamine (Hair Dye) Poisonong. PhD Thesis, UofK