Assessment of the liquid and solid waste from EL Gunied Sugar Factory (2011- 2012)

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Esra Ahmed Eltayeb Alim
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University of Khartoum
Background : Sugar industry in the Sudan started with the establishment of El Gunied Sugar factory in the Gazera . The factory is located in the Gazera State East of Gazera locality (extending south east of Khartoum at a distance of 120 km to the vicinity of Rufaa city on the east bank of the Blue Nile). El Gunied Sugar Factory was completed in 1962 with a daily design capacity 45,000 tones of crushed cane . The plant is managed in part by electricity from the national grid and by steam generated from bagasse .The production Season extends from November to late April or early may. To asses the liquid and solid waste from EL Gunied Sugar Factory. Identify the factory process flow sheet , assess the liquid waste produced from each unit process ,characterize produced and disposed liquid waste in terms of its PH_ BOD _ COD _suspended solids and determine quantity , calculate the dilution factor in the river and characterize the river water at disposal point and quantify the solid waste and generated . Collection of primary data and information from the Factory, laboratory analysis of effluents (chemical &physical analysis) , identification of Factory waste streams (cane wash and process waste) , analysis of Blue Nile before and after waste disposal point , at point of the mixing ,and away after and before the mixing point . The main result : The rate of waste water resulting from manufacturing operation is estimated at about 91200m3 /d which is disposed in the Blue Nile without treatment. BOD test result was 36 mg/l ,and the COD was 68mg/l in the point of disposal in Blue Nile before production season. During production season in point of disposal in blue Nile BOD was 775 mg|l, COD was 1584 mg|l. BOD of the main drain during production season ranged from 115.5 to 1875 mg|l and COD ranged from 420 to 2320 mg|l . 4500 tons of cane are crushed daily producing about 450 tons sugar per day . Estimated industrial solid waste generated is : bagasse 1800 tone /day which is collected and stored inside the factory Until use , molasses production is about 135 tone /day . The bagasse, on burning, produces particulates, viz., unburnt fibers, carbon particulates and gaseous pollutants , the heavier particles slowly settle down in the surrounding area Especially in wad Essayed village. The main gaseous pollutants are CO2,CO and suspended solids , which at present are not being monitored by any unit. Conclusions: The waste water generation rate is about 91200m3 /d which is disposed directly into the Blue Nile without any treatment. This wastewater contains high organic load were biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), reached 1875mg/L.and chemical oxygen demand COD reached 2320mg/L. The estimated(by products ) generation is : bagasse 1800 tons/day in addition to molasses being about 135 tons/d.
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements of master degree (M.Sc) in public & Environmental Health (MPEH)
University of Khartoum Sugar Manufacturing Wastewater treatment industrial waste Environmental Health
Esra Ahmed Eltayeb Alim, Assessment of the liquid and solid waste from EL Gunied Sugar Factory (2011- 2012). – Khartoum : University of Khartoum, 2012. - 61 P. : illus., 28 cm., MS.C.