Effect of Explant Type and Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Morphogenesis of Musa AAA (Cavendish Subgroup) cv. Grand Nain

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Kauther Sir Elkhatim Ali
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University of Khartoum
Bananas are important food crop worldwide. In Sudan expansion of production is limited by shortage of suckers, the common planting material. In vitro propagation via callus is a suitable and important technique for banana clonal propagation leading to rapid and mass propagation of diseases-free plant. In this study, several trials were executed with the objective of defining the suitable medium and explant for banana propagation through in vitro techniques using callus culture. Grand Nain cultivar underwent successful embryogenesis under in vitro conditions. The most responsive explants were shoot tips on full MS liquid medium, flower, shoot tips on ½ MS solid medium, leaf explant, respectively. Upon culture on a medium containing (2,4-D ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/l), the explant produced an opaque, compact, white E callus and a yellowish to brownish NE-callus. The E callus proceeded to form somatic embryos which on transfer to MS developed into normal plantlets. The NEcallus did not possess the competence of either producing embryoids or undergoing any sort of morphogenesis. Hence, in vitro embryogenesis of Grand Nain is a reliable and efficient technique by which high multiplication rate can be achieved. Clusters can be successfully initiated from explants with no seasonal effects, competence maintained for long periods of time and plantlets can be established in vivo with no observed morphological abnormalities. Full strength MS salt mix containing 5.0 mg/l of BA gave the best results for clonal propagation of banana cv. Grand Nain. For rooting using, full MS salt mix containing 5.0 mg/l of kinetin gave higher number of roots. Addition of AgNO3 gave positive results in enhancing fast growth of explants cultured in vitro.
A Thesis Submitted in Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Ph.D in Agricultural Biotechnology
Bananas Musa Cavendish Subgroup food crop Botany and Agricultural Biotechnology University of Khartoum
Kauther Sir Elkhatim Ali, Effect of Explant Type and Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Morphogenesis of Musa AAA (Cavendish Subgroup) cv. Grand Nain. – Khartoum : University of Khartoum, 2009. -97 P. : illus., 28 cm., Ph.D.