Effect of different levels of salinity on growth, yield and seed quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

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Abdel Gadir, Omaima Mohamed
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Two pot experiments and laboratory tests were conducted during two seasons (1999/2000 and 2000/2001) to investigate the effect of different levels of salinity on barley seed yield and seed quality. The two pot experiments were carried out at Shambat, Faculty of Agriculture University of Khartoum while the laboratory tests were carried at the Seed Administration Lab, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Khartoum. Local barley cultivar was used in 1999/2000, while in 2000/2001 four introduced cultivars were used along with the local cultivar. Seeds were planted at 5 levels of soil salinity in 1999/2000 (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mmohs/cm) and 4 levels (0, 4,6 and 8 mmohs/cm) in 2000/2001. The results revealed significant effect of salinity on seedling emergence, all growth and yield parameters and seed quality. Salinity increased seedling emergence percentage and reduced days to 50% heading. Significant increase in number of spikelets/spike, number of seeds/spike and seed yield/pot was found in the first season. No significant effect was obtained on number of tillers / plant, number of spike/plant and 100 seed weight. In the second season significant increase in number of tillers/plant, number of spikes/plant and 100 seed weight was obtained in response to salinity. Significant reduction was found in number of spikelets/spike, number of seeds/spike and seed yield/pot. Seed quality evaluations revealed that salinity resulted in an increase in seedling shoot and root lengths but reduced seedling growth rate, seedling dry weight and speed of germination in the first season. No significant effect was found on standard germination percentage. In the second season, standard germination percentage, seedling shoot length and speed of germination were increased by salinity. Seedling root length was reduced by salinity and no significant effect was found on seedling dry weight and growth rate. Salinity level of 6 mmohs/cm resulted in a significant increase in growth and yield parameters as well as seed quality. The local cultivar was found to be more tolerant to salinity than the introduced cultivars as reflected in growth parameters and seed quality. The interaction effects between salinity levels and cultivars were significant in some tests of growth, yield and quality parameters
growth, yield,seed quality,(Hordeum vulgare)