Milk Production and Marketing in the Sudan A Study of Khartoum and Gezira States

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Mohammed Ahmed Hussein
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University of Khartoum
=607; The problem of this research is that: although Sudan has huge potential of animal resources and vast agricultural endowment, its still unable to achieve self-sufficiency in milk production. Usually there are gaps between demand and domestic milk supplies. The demand has grown faster than supply. This was because of rapid population growth rate, rapid increases in per capita incomes and urbanization. On the supply side: low animal productivity, inappropriate technology, unfavorable external conditions all together have contributed to poor performance of dairy production. In addition to other inefficiencies (lack of governmental policies to develop dairy sub-sector, lack of regulation concerning grades and quality control measures, presence of large number of middlemen along different transaction levels, etc) which have resulted in high prices to consumers and little returns to producers. A matter which entails a precise analysis of the current situation to highlight its constraints and suggest recommendations for its development. =607; The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the constraints facing milk production and marketing and suggest recommendations for solving these problems, for sustainable milk production to urban cents. =607; The specific objectives of this study are to:- (1) Estimate the demand for fresh milk in Khartoum and Gezira states. (2) Estimate fresh milk supply in the two states. (3) Describe the milk marketing system and channels of distribution to check their efficiency and estimate costs and marketing margins. (4) Assess milk profitability and competitiveness as well as export potential. The study was conducted in both Khartoum and Gezira states. The study was based on primary data collected via a structured questionnaire, designed for the purpose of collection of data in the period between October 2006 and March 2007. However, five surveys were conducted which include: milk producers, consumers, milk distributors, milk processing plants and groceries and retail shops surveys. In addition to the secondary data relevant to research problem collected from different sources plus personal interviews of resource persons conducted by the researcher. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select producers for interviews of resource persons. Data were analyzed using different methods of descriptive statistics, budget analyses, future projection models and policy analyses matrix. The study results revealed the following findings: 1- The cost of feeding dairy animals was found to constitute about 80% of total costs of the milk production. 2- Milk producers had kept improper herd structure composition with low ratio of milking cows, usually less than the recommended ratio which had resulted in poor milk production rates. 3- Usually there is a wide gab between milk demand and supply in Khartoum state, because the population growth rates are growing faster than the growth rates of domestic milk production. 4- About 97.3% of the milk fresh milk produced was consumed as raw milk and the remainder was received by milk processing plants. 5- High marketing cost and margins and large number of intermediaries were detected along the marketing channels, due to the lack of efficient marketing system. 6- The middlemen share in consumers\\\\\\\' prices was about 66.6% and the retail margin was about 33.4% which appear to be high. The producer’s share of retail price were 70.8% and 76.5% in Khartoum and Gezira respectively. 7- Part of marketing inefficiency is due to the lack of promotion strategy to raise the consumer awareness about the nutritive value, quality and advantages of processed milk over untreated donkey men milk to increase the marketing share of processed milk. 8- The consumption of fresh milk and milk products was found to increase with increase of family size and disposable income. 9- There are clear consumer preferences for fresh milk compared to others dairy products. 10- Khartoum and Gezira states had comparative advantages in producing milk as indicated by the low ratios of DRC they have scored (0.5 & 0.46) respectively which indicate economic profitability. 11- Sudan had absolute competitiveness since it had positive value of IVA. 12- The dairy industry in the area of the study was handicapped by many production, marketing, organizational, governmental and legislative constraints. Based on the research findings the study had recommended the following:- (1) Provision of essential services for milk producers a) Accessibility to low cost inputs b) Genetic improvement of herd via crossing by artificial insemination and embryo-transfer. c) Education and training of dairy producers through dairy extension. d) Accessibility to credit services. e) Provision of essential services like good infrastructure, chilling services, animal health care and veterinary services. f) Revision of land tenure structure to the benefit of milk producers to increase the arable land under fodder production. (2) Establishment of both milk production and marketing boards to cater for milk production and marketing problems. (3) Conduction of animal census to provide real data on dairy animal for scientific planning. (4) Establishment of suitable production relation between milk processing plants owners and milk producers to guarantee reasonable prices and persistent supply of milk to processing plants. (5) Latest technology adoption to upgrade the existing milk processing industry. (6) Enacting of laws, acts and legislations that regulate quality control and standards of milk and milk products and enforcing it at different transaction levels. (7) Encouragement of investment in the field of dairy industry countrywide. (8) Adoption of promotion strategy to increase the marketing share of processed milk products.
A thesis submitted for the Requirements of the Degree of Ph. D in Agriculture
Milk production marketing Khartoum Gezira Sudan Agricultural Economics University of Khartoum
University of khartoum
Mohammed Ahmed Hussein, Milk Production and Marketing in the Sudan A Study of Khartoum and Gezira States. – Khartoum : University of Khartoum, 2008. - 175 P. : illus., 28 cm., Ph.D.