Socio-Economic and Environmental Considerations of Upgrading and Planning Villages Around Khartoum Case Study of El Salama Village

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Abdalla, Kawthar Ali
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In many third world countries there has been a positive change and orientation, such as the replacement of slum and shanty-town demolition with upgrading programmes. In some instances, the provision of secure tenure to squatters has greatly encouraged the development and improvement of houses and whole settlement. In Khartoum urban area the complex nature of urbanization and urban planning process have increasingly posed very challenging problems to the authorities, the scholars, and the general populace as well. However this study tried to examine the nature and scope of the planning process in Elsalama village through the provision of infrastructure components (e.g. water supply and sanitation , waste disposal, road planning and drainage) through direct government intervention or with community support. The study also directed its attention to assess the impacts of social or economic nature within the affected population. Chapter, one, an introductory section aiming at or to explaining the objective of the planning and replanning activities along with the provision of piped water and electricity and other communal facilities through upgrading roads and houses. In addition to that the study tried to examine the relationship between the shortage of houses, lacking of affordable public utilities and the level of income The chapter also covered methods and technique that followed in the survey .The difficulties also that faced the researcher were highly. Chapter two described , the area of study which include the geographical location, the climate and the topographic features of the ii land as its flatness facilitated in the influx of migrants from adjacent area The chapter also discussed that the characteristics of population of Elsalama. Chapter three literature review, which include the growth of squatter settlement as an urban phenomenon , their causes and effect, and response taking Kenya and Latin America as examples. Chapter Four was devoted to policies of upgrading. In this section, the absence of direct measures for control on land by the land and planning authorities has facilitated the occupation of such land by speculators and squatters. The Government solved the problem of displacement by creating Dar Elsalam township to absorb these vulnerable groups. Chapter Five provided the results of the study through assessing and evaluating the satisfaction of Elsalama inhabitants, considering the socio-economic aspect along with the environment. The study found that upgrading of squatter areas is a sound policy and received wide support by the local population. The planners in El Salama were able to draw the expertise of local leaders in solving any problems that may rise. The upragriding created suitable environmental conditions and provided security of tenure leading to improvement in the built up area.
Socio-Economic,Environmental, Considerations,Upgrading,Planning, Villages ,Around Khartoum