Morphological Classification and Chemical Analysis of the Genus Grewia in Sudan

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Fatima Abdallah Mohammed, Ahmed
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This work deals with the taxonomy of the genus Grewia in the Sudan. This study aims to : (1) identify, classify and construct taxonomic keys based on morphological characters of Grewia spp. in the Sudan , (2) conduct chemical analysis on the fruits of some of the Grewia spp. and construct taxonomic keys based on chemical components and (3) study the common uses of Grewia spp. in areas of nutrition, folk medicine and famine foods. Grewia species were studied from reference specimens (Herbarium of the Forest Research Center at Soba and the Herbarium of the Department of Botany , Faculty of Science , University of Khartoum) and other specimens from the States of Gedarif and North Kordofan in order to classify them and construct taxonomic keys based on morphology . The following morphological traits were used in the preliminary identification of species : plant height , leaf characters and color of flowers and fruits. The preliminary identification was checked by comparison with herbarium specimens. The identified species were authenticated and photographed via a digital camera and then deposited at the Herbarium of the Department of Biology , Faculty of Education , University of Khartoum . Fruits of four Grewia species namely : Grewia flavescens , G. mollis , G.tenax and G. villosa were collected from different villages of North Kordofan and the fruits were chemically analysed for the following components : Ash , moisture , proteins , fats , fibers , carbohydrates , reducing sugars , sucrose , minerals ( potassium , iron and phosphorus) , anti – nutritional factors (tannins and phytate ) and vitamin C . Common uses of Grewia species were studied in the areas of nutrition and folk medicine. The results of chemical analysis were statistically analysed via Duncan's New Multiple Range Test ( DNMRT ) . The results of chemical components were used to construct taxonomic keys . The major findings of this study were : Eleven species of Grewia were identified in the Sudan and these were distributed among the States of Blue Nile , White Nile , Kordofan , Darfur , Kassala , Gedarif beside the Red Sea Hills and the Nuba Mountains . These species were : Grewia tenax , G. villosa , G . flavescens , G . mollis , G. bicolor , G. occidentalis , G. ferruginea , G.asiatical , G.erythraea , G.tembensis and G.stolzii . There were statistically significant differences ( p<0.05) among the four Grewia species in all of the studied chemical components . The fruits of the four Grewia species had high percentage of iron ( Grewia flavescens (0.05%) ; G.mollis (0.07%); G.tenax (0.05%) and G.villosa (0.04%) a finding that confirms the traditional use of Grewia species in the treatment of anemia. Similarly , the four Grewia species had a low percentage of anti-nutritianal factors ( tannins ; phytate ) Grewia flavescens (0.27% ; 0.17%) , G.mollis (0.32% ; 0.09%) , G. tenax (0.33% ; 0.08%) and G. villosa (0.27% ; 0.08%) . Grewia villosa had a high percentage of carbohydrates ( 66.04% ) , reducing sugars (30.19%) and sucrose (28.55%). However , G.mollis had high percentage of minerals such as iron (0.07% ) , potassium (2.51%) , phosphorus (0.035%) and vitamin C ( 0.05%) and hence it is considered as a rich species in these minerals
Morphological Classification Chemical Analysis