New Developments in the Diagnosis of Some Viral Diseases of Camels

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Ibrahim, Abdelmalik
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University of Khartoum
Infectious and emerging diseases are major constraint for camel health and production in Africa and Asia. The accurate diagnosis of these diseases is central in their effective control. Traditionally, histopathology, virus isolation in cell culture or embryonated eggs, immunodiffusion and immunofluorescent tests and electron microscopy have been used for diagnosis of camel viral diseases, but recently molecular techniques are increasingly replacing them. The aim of the present study was to review the main current and new molecular diagnostic techniques for diagnosis of some camel viral diseases; namely, camelpox, camel contagious ecthyma, camel papillomatosis and morbillivirus infection. The experience of the Virology Laboratory at the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum during 2003-2010 on diagnostic application of gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial gene sequencing, including postgraduates research work on these important camel diseases are summarized and discussed. The performed PCR assays enabled rapid and early laboratory confirmation and molecular differentiation among the causative viruses as well as genotyping camel papilloma virus for the first time. The contribution of these achievements to the development of the animal production sector in the Sudan is highlighted.
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Camels; viral diseases; diagnosis; PCR; sequencing; Sudan