Assessment of Critical Control Point in Dairy Farms in Khartoum State, Sudan

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Siddeeg, Ranya
Elamin, Atif
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University of Khartoum
An attempt was made to apply Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system in dairy farms in Khartoum State and to suggest control limits based on the international standard. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommended the HACCP system as a modern tool for disease prevention. Critical points were investigated in 150 farms using California Mastitis Test and Rose Bengal Plate Test for detection of bovine mastitis and brucellosis, respectively. The results revealed that the overall prevalence rates of bovine mastitis and brucellosis were 69.3% and 36%, respectively. Other critical points were obtained from the owners of the dairy farms by a questionnaire, using non-probability sampling method or willingness of the owners for interview. Tick infestation was found in 94% of the farms which could be a risk factor and the application of the odds ratio (OR) was 1.694. The use of antibiotics for treatment of animals was, also, practiced in 54.7% of the farms. The critical points associated with environment in dairy farms and distribution of milk in Khartoum State was investigated, using a questionnaire survey and non probability sampling method. The condition of beddings was poor in 70% of the dairy farms. Absence of cleaning and disinfection of the teats were recorded in 108 and 104 farms, respectively. Furthermore, distribution of the milk depended on either vehicle without chilling (50.7%) or donkey carts (49.3%). Quantification of the risk indicated that hand washing of the milkers could be a risk factor (OR = 2.574), while the condition of the housing as well as the distribution of the milk could be a protective factor (OR=0.383 and 0.278, respectively). In conclusion, many critical points associated with animals or environment were observed in dairy farms in Khartoum State. Diseases of animals included infectious and zoonotic disease, flies and tick infestation, use of antibiotics for treatment and absence of veterinary care. The critical points associated with environment were poor hygiene during handling, storage and distribution of the milk. Moreover, the control limits for all mentioned critical points were as follow: Access to veterinary service, vectors control, improvement of general hygiene in the dairy farms during different practices taking in consideration the low temperature during storage and distribution of the milk.
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Critical control points; dairy farms; Khartoum State; Sudan