Decentralization Policies In Sudan Political Expediency Impeded Administrative Efficiency Case Study (Southern Darfur State) (1972 – 2002)

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Abbaker Omer Abbaker Khalil
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University of Khartoum
A vast country like Sudan, with no adequate means of transport, its parts reflect differences in stage of development, its population is heterogeneous socially, culturally, ethnically and religiously. With these disparities decentralization becomes the only choice. A fact need to be mentioned is that, Sudan since its independence in 1956 to date, had experienced many types of governments “military and civil”. It was noted that each government had adopted the decentralization policy it regarded fit, the result was different models being tried and implemented. Each of these models was based on the assumption that it aims at achieving both popular participation “democracy” and socio-development “expediency and efficiency”. Reference to the federal rule in particular, emphasis on state level, it is observed that in the course of practice popular participation out weighted socio-development i.e. imbalanced participation development ratio. To enhance decentralization each state is devolved the powers that enable it formulate its own policies in the way it considers fit to achieve participation and development, it is known that there are disparities between states in terms of stages of development and resources. Reference to Southern Darfur, the imbalanced situation became apparent with this it came to constitute a research problem. This imbalanced participation and development ratio pave the way for two questions to be asked. Why the profile of Southern Darfur State reveals this imbalanced situation? Had the decentralization policy being under taken by it has any impact on this situation? Exploring and analyzing this imbalanced situation is a major objective of this study. Methodology followed here is the descriptive, analytic approach. Data and informations, come from both primary and secondary sources. The later is extracted from reference works, archives and official publications. For the former, interviews, questionnaires and observations are employed. In processing and analyzing the data Superior Performing Software System (SPSS) is used. Other statistical methods such as Pearson Chi-Squire and Binominal Distribution Tests were used, especially in testing the hypotheses. The study is presented in eight chapters; chapter one is an introductory, chapter two covers theoretical frame. Chapter three and four both trace decentralization policy, respectively one trace it countrywide the other for the area of the study. Chapter five and six study and analyze the experience of the area of the study fieldwork. Chapter five dealt with socio-development, administrative efficiency, and chapter six with popular participation and political expediency. This chapter is annexed by a part presenting the political achievements the state succeeded to secure in form of participation and the administrative challenges, it has faced in its way to achieve socio-development. Chapter seven is devoted to research results “testing the hypotheses”. Finally, chapter eight is made to deal with conclusion and recommendations, followed by an attempt to develop a model as a research contribution. While conducting this study the researcher had faced time and spatial limitations. The research covers from 1951 to 2002, however in early days of 2003 a new decentralization policy had taken place, such had affect on part of the study. Moreover, before finalizing this study the area had experienced anti-government movement, such might result in new trend of decentralization not to the area but to the whole country. Conclusions relating to the area of the study are that; as consequence to state decentralization policy, the four provinces became six, then seven, and finally nine. The former (19) localities became (38) and finally (43). With this proliferation policy participation, democracy, political expediency had been achieved, but when this achievement is compared to socio-development services provided measured here by education and health services as indicators to administration efficiency of the government, the later is relatively less satisfactory i.e. imbalanced. Reasons behind so are attributed to the strong desire to decentralize without attention to certain environmental factors. Recommendations to resolve this dilemma are presented. A model is attempted to bridge the gab between participation and development. English Abstract
A thesis submitted for the award of Ph.D degree in Public Administration Institute for Studies of Public Administration and Federalism
Decentralization Policies Administrative Efficiency Southern Darfur sudan University of Khartoum Public Administration
Abbaker Omer Abbaker Khalil, Decentralization Policies In Sudan Political Expediency Impeded Administrative Efficiency Case Study (Southern Darfur State) (1972 – 2002). – Khartoum : University of Khartoum, 2005. - 419P. : illus., 28 cm., Ph.D.