Effect of Sodium Cromoglycate in Sudanese patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

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A / Rafie, Amira
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Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic condition which predominantly affects male children and young adults. VKC victims may suffer from symptoms throughout the year, but the intensity of signs and symptoms increases during the hot seasons. Mast cells appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC. Objective: This study aims to evaluate from a clinical point of view the role of sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of VKC. Methods: In a single masked interventional study, done in Makkah Eye Complex in Khartoum state during the period Jan – June 2004, 97 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis were included in this study, 68 patients were the study group using sodium cromoglycate eye drops and 29 patients were the control group using tears naturale as a placebo. A questionnaire designed containing all necessary information was completed and full ocular examination for each patient was performed. Signs and symptoms were graded and recorded in three stages: stage 1(baseline examination), stage 2 (after 2 weeks) and stage 3 (after 4 weeks). Treatments were given to the patients as follows: first two weeks steroids plus sodium cromoglycate for the study group and steroid plus placebo for the control group. At the end of the first 2 weeks steroid stopped and treatment continued with sodium cromoglycate for the study group and placebo for the control group for 4 weeks. Results: Itching and hyperaemia were the main presenting symptom and sign of VKC. In the first follow up there was improvement in symptoms and signs of both study and control groups and this was attributed to the anti-inflammatory effect of steroid. In the second follow up there was a significant improvement in the symptoms and signs among the study group and this was attributed to the mast cell stabilization effect of sodium cromoglycate while in the control group the improvement was not significant, and some symptoms and signs were getting worse. Conclusion: Sodium cromoglycate is effective as a prophylactic drug in the treatment of VKC.
Sodium, Cromoglycate,Vernal, Keratoconjunctivitis,