A Study on the Ecological Group Coprophilous (Dung) Fungi in Khartoum

No Thumbnail Available
Khiralla, Afra Ahmed Ismail
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Forty goat and donkey dung samples were collected from an animal farm in Khartoum during the period November 2004 and December 2005, to examine and verify coprophilous fungi diversity and succession under seasonal environmental conditions in Khartoum. Collected samples were incubated in humid chambers at laboratory temperatures 28°C. ± 5 The effects of dung moisture content, relative humidity, pH and the effect of light on fungal growth, fruiting bodies formation and succession were examined. The results revealed the following: 1. Goat and donkey dung samples produced a limited number of genera of coprophilous fungi, unlike the greater diversity of saprophytic fungi on other organic waste matter. 2. Goat and donkey dung samples revealed more or less the same genera of fungi with minor variations, such as Calocera sp. Gymnoascus sp. Coprotus sp. encountered on goat dung samples only, and Coprinus spp. numbers were more evident on donkey dung than on goat dung samples. 3. Goat and donkey dung samples showed a similar pattern of succession in the formation of their fruiting bodies; sporangia of the Zygomycotina species developed first after only two or three days, followed by the fruiting bodies of the Ascomycotina species, and later the fruiting bodies of the Basidiomycotina species. 4. The seasonal sampling revealed more or less the same general pattern of diversity and succession, but the summer samples, April to July with ambient temperatures above 40°C, revealed a marked reduction in diversity and intensity of coprophilous fungi, examples being Pilobolus and Coprinus species which disappeared, departing from the classical pattern reported in literature from other regions of the world. 5. Some specific fungi such as Calocera sp. Thamnostylum sp. Iodophanus sp. appeared only in the winter samples collected in December and January. 6. The results on the effects of abiotic factors showed that best growth and sporulation of coprophilous fungi occurred at the moisture content 65 and 75% for goat and donkey respectively; at the relative humidity value 98%; at the slightly alkaline pH value 7.5 and that most of these fungi proved positively phototropic. 7. Dung incubation at higher moisture contents of 85% and above, and at 100% R.H. encouraged bacterial and nematodes growth, thereby suppressing coprophilous fungi. 8. Mycoparasitism was observed on dung samples; Coprinus sp. reduced the diversity and intensity of coprophilous fungi on the samples, also Piptocephalis sp. attacked and suppressed Mucor sp. causing its disappearance within two days. 9. The role of coprophilous fungi in the natural decomposition of dung is markedly reduced by the effects of the high summer temperatures in Khartoum limiting the growth of some of these fungi
A Study ,Ecological,Coprophilous Fungi, Khartoum